Form S-3
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 10, 2018

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   26-0784194

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

1601 Trapelo Road

Suite 286

Waltham, MA 02451

(617) 600-7373

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Remy Luthringer

Chief Executive Officer

1601 Trapelo Road

Suite 286

Waltham, MA 02451

(617) 600-7373

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Marc Recht

Ryan Sansom

Cooley LLP

500 Boylston Street, 14th Floor

Boston, MA 02116

(617) 937-2300

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  

Emerging growth company

      

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be
Registered

  Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit
 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee (1)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  (2)   (3)   (3)  

Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  (2)   (3)   (3)  

Debt Securities

  (2)   (3)   (3)  

Warrants

  (2)   (3)   (3)  

Total

  (2)       $200,000,000   $24,900

 

 

(1)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

(2)

There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities as may be sold by the Registrant from time to time, which together shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $200,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with the other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

(3)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

 

THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE COMMISSION ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $200,000,000 of our common stock and preferred stock, debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement, with Jefferies LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus supplement immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus supplement is included in the $200,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.


Table of Contents

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 10, 2018.

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

$200,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate amount of $200,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. We will provide the specific terms of these offerings in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NERV.” On August 7, 2018, the closing price of our common stock, as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market was $7.90 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listings on the Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus beginning on page 4 and any applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The securities may be sold directly by us to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Prospectus dated                , 2018.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1

RISK FACTORS

     4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     5  

DILUTION

     5  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     16  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     18  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     21  

LEGAL MATTERS

     24  

EXPERTS

     24  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     24  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     24  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $200,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to carefully read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information By Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information in addition to or different from that contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurances as to the reliability of, any information not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

You should assume that the information in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in a document incorporated by reference is inconsistent with a statement in another document incorporated by reference having a later date, the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

i


Table of Contents

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below in the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Unless the context otherwise indicates, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” “the registrant,” or similar references refer, collectively, to Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451 and our phone number is (617) 600-7373.

 

ii


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights selected information contained or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the information under the caption “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus (as supplemented and amended) and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of a portfolio of product candidates to treat patients suffering from central nervous system diseases. Leveraging our scientific insights and clinical experience, we are developing four proprietary compounds that we believe have innovative mechanisms of action and therapeutic profiles that potentially address the unmet needs of patients with these diseases.

Our product portfolio and potential indications include: roluperidone (also known as MIN-101) for the treatment of schizophrenia; seltorexant (also known as MIN-202 or JNJ-42847922), which we are co-developing with Janssen Pharmaceutica NV for the treatment of insomnia disorder and major depressive disorder, or MDD; MIN-117 for the treatment of MDD; and MIN-301 for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. We believe our product candidates have significant potential to improve the lives of a large number of affected patients and their families who are currently not well-served by available therapies.

Company Information

We were incorporated under the name Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals, Inc. under the laws of the State of Delaware on April 23, 2007. In November 2013, we merged with Sonkei Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the combined company was renamed Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

Our principal executive offices are located at 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451 and our phone number is (617) 600-7373. Our website address is www.minervaneurosciences.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) December 31, 2019; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any such securities, either individually or in combination, up to a total dollar amount of $200,000,000, from time to time under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. We may also offer common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity date, if applicable;

 

   

original issue discount, if any;



 


Table of Contents
   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

   

ranking, if applicable;

 

   

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

   

material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.

Any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

   

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

   

the estimated net proceeds to us.

Common Stock.

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets legally available for distribution to stockholders remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock which we may designate in the future. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the common stock under “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common stock being offered.

Preferred Stock.

We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock being offered, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock may be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for our other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.



 

2


Table of Contents

We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of the certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities.

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities.

Warrants.

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. Forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants may also be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

Use of Proceeds

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses, and selling, general and administrative expenses. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.

Nasdaq Global Market Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NERV.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 



 

3


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the occurrence of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including in (1) our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K on file with the SEC, (2) our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q on file with the SEC and (3) as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, all of which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

4


Table of Contents

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges and the ratio of our combined fixed charges and preferred dividends to earnings for each of the periods indicated. The following table is qualified by the more detailed information appearing in the computation table set forth in Exhibit 12.1 to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part and the historical financial statements, including the notes to those financial statements, incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Six Months
Ended June 30,
 
     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2018  
     (in thousands)  

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     —         —         —         —         —         —    

Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

     —         —         —         —         —         —    

Deficiency of earnings available to cover fixed charges

   $ (3,262   $ (56,902   $ (27,082   $ (31,046   $ (40,899   $ (24,948

Deficiency of earnings available to cover combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

   $ (3,262   $ (56,902   $ (27,082   $ (31,046   $ (40,899   $ (24,948

For purposes of computing the ratio of earnings to fixed charges and the ratio of our combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends to earnings, earnings consist of income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes plus fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense on indebtedness and an estimate of the interest within rental expense.

We did not record earnings for any of the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 or for the six months ended June 30, 2018. Accordingly, our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for such periods and we are unable to disclose a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for such periods.

USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. In addition, we may use a portion of the proceeds for the acquisition of, or investment in, technologies, solutions or businesses that complement our business, although we have no present commitments or agreements to enter into any such acquisitions or investments. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.

DILUTION

We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the following information regarding any material dilution of the equity interests of investors purchasing securities in an offering under this prospectus:

 

   

the net tangible book value per share of our equity securities before and after the offering;

 

   

the amount of the increase in such net tangible book value per share attributable to the cash payments made by purchasers in the offering; and

 

   

the amount of the immediate dilution from the public offering price which will be absorbed by such purchasers.

 

5


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock, of certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, and of certain provisions of Delaware law, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of our capital stock. The following description of our capital stock is a summary and does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Authorized Capital Stock

Our authorized capital stock consists of 125,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. A description of material terms and provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws affecting the rights of holders of our capital stock is set forth below. The description is intended as a summary, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the amended and restated bylaws.

As of July 31, 2018 there were 38,774,343 shares of common stock outstanding, no shares of preferred stock outstanding, options to purchase an aggregate of 6,670,150 shares of common stock outstanding, warrants to purchase an aggregate of 40,790 shares of common stock outstanding and restricted stock units in respect of 185,950 shares of common stock outstanding.

Common stock

Voting rights. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. The holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.

Dividend rights. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future. The shares of common stock to be issued under this prospectus, when they are paid for, will be fully paid and nonassessable.

Preferred stock

Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of our company or other corporate action.

The following summary of terms of our preferred stock is not complete. You should refer to the provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and the resolutions containing the terms of each class or series of the preferred stock which have been or will be filed with the SEC at or prior to the time of issuance of such class or series of preferred stock and described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement may also state that any of the terms set forth herein are inapplicable to such series of preferred stock, provided that the information set forth in such prospectus supplement does not constitute material changes to the information herein such that it alters the nature of the offering or the securities offered.

 

6


Table of Contents

Our board of directors will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price;

 

   

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities, and the conversion rate or conversion price, or how they will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and the exchange rate or exchange price, or how they will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

   

preemptive rights;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, they will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

 

7


Table of Contents

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, the state of our incorporation, provide that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class on any proposal involving fundamental changes in the rights of holders of such preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, conversion or other rights of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

Forum

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Company to us or our stockholders, any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provision. Although our amended and restated certificate of incorporation includes these provisions, it is possible that a court could rule that such provisions are inapplicable or unenforceable

Anti-takeover Provisions

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes, with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, our stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that all stockholder action must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and not by a consent in writing, and that only our board of directors or chairman of the board may call a special meeting of stockholders.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation requires a 662/3% stockholder vote for the amendment, repeal or modification of certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws relating to the classification of our board of directors, the requirement that stockholder actions be effected at a duly called meeting, and the designated parties entitled to call a special meeting of the stockholders. The combination of the classification of our board of directors, the lack of cumulative voting and the 662/3% stockholder voting requirements will make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change control of our company.

These provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control of our company or management. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened acquisition of us. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal. The provisions also are intended to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and, as a consequence, they also may inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our shares that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. Such provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

   

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested holder;

 

8


Table of Contents
   

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 50% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines business combination to include the following:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is P.O. Box 43078, Providence, Rhode Island 02940. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NERV”. On August 7, 2018, the closing price of our common stock was $7.90 per share. As of August 7, 2018, we had approximately 16 stockholders of record.

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listing, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Market or other securities exchange of the preferred stock covered by such prospectus supplement.

 

9


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

   

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

10


Table of Contents
   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

   

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

11


Table of Contents
   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

12


Table of Contents

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

13


Table of Contents
   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

   

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

14


Table of Contents

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

15


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the amount of warrants or rights outstanding;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

16


Table of Contents
   

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

   

a discussion of material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth in the applicable warrant or warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants, warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

17


Table of Contents

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any applicable trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the legal holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

18


Table of Contents

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank, broker or other financial institution for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

19


Table of Contents
   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your bank, broker or other financial institution may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

   

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks, brokers or other financial institutions to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

20


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell our securities from time to time:

 

   

to or through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers;

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;

 

   

block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the shares as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

 

   

an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted by law.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In any applicable prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The distribution of our securities stock may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you with respect to a particular offering) will describe the terms of the offering of our securities, including the following:

 

   

the name or names of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

21


Table of Contents
   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of our securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to those liabilities.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery.

Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

In order to facilitate the offering of our securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of our securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the

 

22


Table of Contents

third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

 

23


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

Cooley LLP, Boston, Massachusetts will pass upon the validity of the securities offered hereby unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K has been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room. These documents also may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

You may also access our filings with the SEC on our web site, www.minervaneurosciences.com. Other than those filings with the SEC that we specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus, information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (other than Current Reports or portions furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K), including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus:

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed on March 12, 2018;

 

 

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A related to our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 24, 2018;

 

 

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2018, filed on May 3, 2018, and June 30, 2018, filed on August 2, 2018;

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 8, 2018, February 5, 2018, February 21, 2018, March 22, 2018, June 11, 2018 and July 17, 2018; and

 

24


Table of Contents
   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed on June 23, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Geoffrey Race, Corporate Secretary, Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451; telephone: (617) 600-7373; E-mail: grace@minervaneurosciences.com.

You also may access these filings on our website at www.minervaneurosciences.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus (other than those filings with the SEC that we specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus or any supplement to this prospectus).

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information other than what is incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

 

25


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 10, 2018

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

$50,000,000

 

LOGO

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into an Open Market Sale AgreementSM, or sales agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, dated August 10, 2018, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus supplement we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through Jefferies, acting as our agent.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Jefferies is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Jefferies will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the sales agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-8 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Jefferies. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Jefferies with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “NERV.” On August 7, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $7.90 per share. 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

  Jefferies  

The date of this prospectus supplement is                , 2018.

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-1  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-2  

THE OFFERING

     S-3  

RISK FACTORS

     S-4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-6  

DILUTION

     S-7  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-8  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-9  

EXPERTS

     S-9  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-9  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-9  

 


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process, and related to the offering of our common stock. Under the shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock having a total aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000. Under this prospectus supplement, we may offer shares of our common stock having a total aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and all of the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering when making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents we have referred you to under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

We provide information to you about this offering of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying base prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying base prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and Jefferies has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and Jefferies is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, all references in this prospectus supplement to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” “the registrant,” or similar references refer, collectively, to Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451 and our phone number is (617) 600-7373.

This prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference herein include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective owners.

 

S-1


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

The following summary highlights selected information contained or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement, the base prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, including the information under the caption “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus supplement (as supplemented and amended) and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. You should also carefully read the other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, including our financial statements and the related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of a portfolio of product candidates to treat patients suffering from central nervous system diseases. Leveraging our scientific insights and clinical experience, we are developing four proprietary compounds that we believe have innovative mechanisms of action and therapeutic profiles that potentially address the unmet needs of patients with these diseases.

Our product portfolio and potential indications include: roluperidone (also known as MIN-101) for the treatment of schizophrenia; seltorexant (also known as MIN-202 or JNJ-42847922), which we are co-developing with Janssen Pharmaceutica NV for the treatment of insomnia disorder and major depressive disorder, or MDD; MIN-117 for the treatment of MDD; and MIN-301 for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. We believe our product candidates have significant potential to improve the lives of a large number of affected patients and their families who are currently not well-served by available therapies.

Company Information

We were incorporated under the name Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals, Inc. under the laws of the State of Delaware on April 23, 2007. In November 2013, we merged with Sonkei Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the combined company was renamed Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

Our principal executive offices are located at 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451 and our phone number is (617) 600-7373. Our website address is www.minervaneurosciences.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.



 

S-2


Table of Contents

THE OFFERING

 

Common Stock Offered By Us    Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.
Manner of Offering    “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on the Nasdaq Global Market or other existing trading market for our common stock through our agent, Jefferies LLC. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement.
Use of Proceeds    We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenditures, acquisitions or in-licenses of complementary companies, medicines or technologies, expenditures to build our initial development and commercial capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds” on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement.
Risk Factors    See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Market Symbol    “NERV”.


 

S-3


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the occurrence of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including in (1) our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K on file with the SEC, (2) our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q on file with the SEC and (3) as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, all of which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering.

Additional Risks Related to This Offering

You may experience dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 6,289,308 shares of our common stock are sold in this offering at a price of $7.90 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on August 7, 2018, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $50.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $5.46 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2018, after giving effect to this offering, and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants would result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing stockholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenditures, acquisitions or in-licenses of complementary companies, medicines or technologies, expenditures to build our initial development and commercial capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

 

S-4


Table of Contents

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering may contain forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus may also contain estimates and other statistical data made by independent parties and by us relating to market size and growth and other data about our industry. This data involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the markets in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward- looking statements speak only as of the respective dates of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus, as applicable, and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

 

S-5


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50.0 million from time to time in this offering. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that, in the future, we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Jefferies as a source of financing.

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenditures, acquisitions or in-licenses of complementary companies, medicines or technologies, expenditures to build our initial development and commercial capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures.

The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

 

S-6


Table of Contents

DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of June 30, 2018 was approximately $61.6 million, or approximately $1.59 per share of common stock based upon 38,749,343 shares outstanding. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2018.

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million at an assumed offering price of $7.90 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on August 7, 2018, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2018 would have been $109.8 million, or $2.44 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.85 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $5.46 per share to new investors in this offering.

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement. The as adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million is sold at the assumed offering price of $7.90 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on August 7, 2018. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 7.90  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2018

   $ 1.59     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

   $ 0.85     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2018, after giving effect to this offering

      $ 2.44  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

      $ 5.46  
     

 

 

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 38,749,343 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2018. The number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2018 excludes:

 

   

6,655,150 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2018, having a weighted average exercise price of $6.54 per share;

 

   

185,950 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units as of June 30, 2018;

 

   

2,742,654 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our Amended and Restated 2013 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2013 Plan, as of June 30, 2018, plus any future increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance under the 2013 Plan pursuant to evergreen provisions; and

 

   

40,790 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2018, each at an exercise price of $5.516 per share

The foregoing table does not give effect to the exercise of any outstanding options or warrants. To the extent options or warrants are exercised, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

S-7


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an Open Market Sale AgreementSM, or sales agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through the third anniversary of the effective date of such agreement up to an aggregate sales price of $50.0 million through Jefferies. The sales agreement is filed as Exhibit 1.2 to our registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, and is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made by any method that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

When requested by us, Jefferies will offer the shares of common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, which may be on a daily basis for periods of time, or as we may otherwise agree with Jefferies. We will designate the maximum amount of shares of common stock to be sold through Jefferies when we request Jefferies to do so. Jefferies has agreed, subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, to use its commercially reasonable efforts to execute our orders to sell, as our sales agent and on our behalf, shares of our common stock submitted to Jefferies from time to time by us, consistent with its normal sales and trading practices. We may instruct Jefferies not to place shares of common stock at or below a price designated by us. We or Jefferies may suspend the offering of shares of common stock under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party.

If we and Jefferies so agree, Jefferies may act as principal in connection with the placement of the securities offered hereby.

We will pay Jefferies a commission of 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares sold through it pursuant to this prospectus supplement, and reimburse Jefferies for up to $50,000 of its expenses, including fees and disbursements to its legal counsel. The estimated offering expenses payable by us, in addition to such commission and expenses, are approximately $255,000, which includes legal, accounting and printing costs and various other fees associated with registering the shares of common stock. The remaining sale proceeds, after deducting any other transaction fees, will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.

Jefferies will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Market each day on which shares of common stock are sold under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the aggregate gross proceeds of such sales and the commission payable by us to Jefferies. Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless otherwise agreed, on the second business day following the date on which such sales were made.

In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

We have agreed to indemnify Jefferies against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We have also agreed to contribute to payments Jefferies may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.

The offering of shares of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earliest of (i) the sale of all shares of common stock subject to the sales agreement and this prospectus supplement, (ii) the termination of the sales agreement according to its terms by either Jefferies or us and (iii) the third anniversary of the effective date of the sales agreement.

Jefferies has provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other services to us and our affiliates for which services it has received, and may in the future receive, customary fees. In the course of its business, Jefferies may actively trade our securities for its own account or for the accounts of customers, and, accordingly, Jefferies may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities.

 

S-8


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, Boston, Massachusetts.  Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York, will act as counsel to Jefferies LLC in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K has been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference facilities of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is www.minervaneurosciences.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying base prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (other than Current Reports or portions furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K), including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus supplement:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed on March 12, 2018;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A related to our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 24, 2018;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018, filed on May 3, 2018, and June 30, 2018, filed on August 2, 2018;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 8, 2018, February 5, 2018, February 21, 2018, March 22, 2018, June 11, 2018 and July 17, 2018; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed on June 23, 2014, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

 

S-9


Table of Contents

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus supplement is delivered, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Geoffrey Race, Corporate Secretary, Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451; telephone: (617) 600-7373; E-mail: grace@minervaneurosciences.com.

You also may access these filings on our website at www.minervaneurosciences.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus supplement and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus supplement (other than those filings with the SEC that we specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement).

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information other than what is incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus supplement. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus supplement or those documents.

 

 

S-10


Table of Contents

 

 

$50,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

 

Jefferies

 

 

            , 2018

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth an estimate of the fees and expenses payable by us, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being registered hereby. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee.

 

     Amount  

SEC registration fee

   $ 24,900  

Accounting fees and expenses

     (1

Legal fees and expenses

     (1

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses

     (1

Printing and miscellaneous fees and expenses

     (1
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ (1
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (referred to as the “DGCL”) authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for indemnification of the our directors, officers, authorized representatives, and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL, and our amended and restated bylaws provide for indemnification of our directors, officers, authorized representatives, and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL.

In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers containing provisions that are in some respects broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained in the DGCL. The indemnification agreements require us to, among other things, indemnify our directors against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors and to advance their expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified.

These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as an injunction or rescission.

We maintain insurance policies that indemnify its directors and officers against various liabilities arising under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that might be incurred by any director or officer in his capacity as such.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

The following exhibits are filed as part of this Registration Statement on Form S-3 or are incorporated herein by reference.

 

 

II - 1


Table of Contents

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit

No.

  

Description of Exhibit

  

Form

  

File No.

  

Exhibit

  

Filing Date

  

Filed
Herewith

  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement               
  1.2    Open Market Sale Agreement, dated as of August 10, 2018, between the Registrant and Jefferies LLC.                X
  2.1    Agreement and Plan of Merger of Sonkei Pharmaceuticals, Inc. with and into Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals, Inc., dated as of November 12, 2013    S-1    333-195169    10.11    April 9, 2014   
  2.2    Certificate of Merger Merging Sonkei Pharmaceuticals, Inc. with and into Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals, Inc., dated as of November 12, 2013    S-1/A    333-195169    3.3    June 10, 2014   
  3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant    S-1/A    333-195169    3.1    June 10, 2014   
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant    S-1/A    333-195169    3.2    June 10, 2014   
  4.1    Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2 above               
  4.2    Form of Common Stock Certificate    S-1/A    333-195169    4.1    June 10, 2014   
  4.3    Investor Rights Agreement among the Registrant f/k/a Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and certain of its security holders, dated as of August  29, 2007    S-1/A    333-195169    4.2    June 10, 2014   
  4.4    Amendment No.  1 to Investor Rights Agreement among the Registrant and certain of its security holders, dated as of December 20, 2013    S-1/A    333-195169    4.3    June 10, 2014   
  4.5*    Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.               
  4.6    Form of Indenture                X
  4.7*    Form of Note               
  4.8    Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                X
  4.9    Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                X
  4.10    Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                X
  5.1    Opinion of Cooley LLP                X
12.1    Statement Regarding Computation of Ratios                X
23.1    Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP, independent registered public accounting firm                X
23.2    Consent of Cooley LLP (contained in Exhibit 5.1)               
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page)               
25.1**    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture               

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

**

To be filed separately under electronic form type 305B2 under Rule 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable.

 

II - 2


Table of Contents
Item 17.

Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B:

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

(ii) If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the

 

II - 3


Table of Contents

registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II - 4


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Waltham, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on August 10, 2018.

 

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

 

By:  

/s/ Remy Luthringer, Ph.D.

  Remy Luthringer, Ph.D.
  Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Each person whose signature appears below hereby severally constitutes and appoints Remy Luthringer and Geoffrey Race, and each of them singly, as such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including, without limitation, post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorney-in-fact and agent, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that any said attorney-in-fact and agent, or any substitute or substitutes of any of them, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Remy Luthringer, Ph.D.

Remy Luthringer, Ph.D.

  

Chief Executive Officer and

Chairman of the Board of Directors

(Principal Executive Officer)

  August 10, 2018

/s/ Geoffrey Race

Geoffrey Race

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer)

  August 10, 2018

/s/ Frederick Ahlholm

Frederick Ahlholm

  

Chief Accounting Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer)

  August 10, 2018

/s/ William F. Doyle

William F. Doyle

   Member of the Board of Directors   August 10, 2018

/s/ Hans Peter Hasler

Hans Peter Hasler

   Member of the Board of Directors   August 10, 2018

/s/ David Kupfer, M.D.

David Kupfer, M.D.

   Member of the Board of Directors   August 10, 2018

/s/ Jan van Heek

Jan van Heek

   Member of the Board of Directors   August 10, 2018

/s/ Fouzia Laghrissi-Thode, M.D.

Fouzia Laghrissi-Thode, M.D.

   Member of the Board of Directors   August 10, 2018

/s/ Jeryl Hilleman

   Member of the Board of Directors   August 10, 2018
Jeryl Hilleman     

 

Index - 2

EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

EXECUTION VERSION

OPEN MARKET SALE AGREEMENTSM

August 10, 2018

JEFFERIES LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein, to issue and sell from time to time through Jefferies LLC, as sales agent and/or principal (the “Agent”), shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Shares”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 on the terms set forth in this agreement (this “Agreement”).

Section 1. DEFINITIONS

(a) Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined shall have the following respective meanings:

Affiliate” of a Person means another Person that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such first- mentioned Person. The term “control” (including the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

Agency Period” means the period commencing on the date of this Agreement and expiring on the earliest to occur of (x) the date on which the Agent shall have placed the Maximum Program Amount pursuant to this Agreement, (y) the date this Agreement is terminated pursuant to Section 7 and (z) the third anniversary of the date of this Agreement.

Agent” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

Agreement” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

Base Prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

Code” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(gg)

Commission” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Shares” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

 

SM 

“Open Market Sale Agreement” is a service mark of Jefferies LLC


Company” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of this Agreement.

Company Intellectual Property” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(v).

Debt Repayment Triggering Event” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

Default” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

Environmental Laws” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ff).

ERISA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(gg).

ERISA Affiliate” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(gg).

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Existing Instrument” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

FCPA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(mm).

FINRA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(s).

Floor Price” means the minimum price set by the Company in the Issuance Notice below which the Agent shall not sell Shares during the applicable Selling Period, which may be adjusted by the Company at any time during the Selling Period by delivering written notice of such change to the Agent and which in no event shall be less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion.

Free Writing Prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(e).

Hazardous Materials” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(ff).

Health Care Laws” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(kk).

HIPPA” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(kk).

Issuance Amount” means the aggregate Sales Price of the Shares to be sold by the Agent pursuant to any Issuance Notice.

Issuance Notice” means a written notice delivered to the Agent by the Company in accordance with this Agreement in the form attached hereto as Exhibit A that is executed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer.

Issuance Notice Date” means any Trading Day during the Agency Period that an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

Issuance Price” means the Sales Price less the Selling Commission.

 

2


Intellectual Property” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(v).

Investment Company Act” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(z).

Material Adverse Change” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(k).

Material Adverse Effect” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(o).

Maximum Program Amount” means Common Shares with an aggregate Sales Price of the lesser of (1) $50,000,000 and (2) the aggregate dollar amount or number of Shares registered under the Registration Statement.

Money Laundering Laws” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(nn).

OFAC” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(qq).

Original Registration Statement” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

Other Offering Amendment” means an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating solely to the issuance or offering of securities other than the Common Shares.

PCAOB” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(l).

Permits” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(w).

Person” means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or other entity of any kind.

Principal Market” means the Nasdaq Global Market or such other national securities exchange on which the Common Shares, including any Shares, are then listed.

Prospectus” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

Registration Statement” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).

Regulation M” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(bb).

Regulatory Agencies” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(pp)

Representation Date” has the meaning set forth in the introductory paragraph of Section 2.

Rule 102” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(u).

Sales Price” means the actual sale execution price of each Share placed by the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

3


Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Selling Commission” means three percent (3.0%) of the gross proceeds for the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement.

Selling Period” means the period of one (1) to twenty (20) consecutive Trading Days (as determined by the Company in the Company’s sole discretion and specified in the applicable Issuance Notice) including the Trading Day on which an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i), if such notice is delivered prior to 3:00 p.m. (New York City time) and otherwise, following the Trading Day on which an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

Settlement Date” means the second business day following each Trading Day during the Selling Period on which Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement, when the Company shall deliver to the Agent the amount of Shares sold on such Trading Day and the Agent shall deliver to the Company the Issuance Price received on such sales.

Shares” shall mean the Company’s Common Shares issued or issuable pursuant to this Agreement.

Specified Courts” has the meaning set forth in Section 8(g).

Time of Sale” has the meaning set forth in Section 3(b)(v).

Time of Sale Information” has the meaning set forth in Section 2(b).

Trading Day” means any day on which the Principal Market is open for trading.

Triggering Event Date” has the meaning set forth in Section 4(o).

Section 2. REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF THE COMPANY

The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of (1) the date of this Agreement, (2) each Issuance Notice Date, (3) each Settlement Date, (4) each Triggering Event Date and (5) each Time of Sale (each of the times referenced above is referred to herein as a “Representation Date”), except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto) on or before a Representation Date:

(a) Registration Statement. The Company has prepared and filed or will file with the Commission a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that contains a base prospectus (the “Base Prospectus”). Such registration statement registers the issuance and sale by the Company of the Shares under the Securities Act. Such registration statement, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, including all financial statements, exhibits and schedules thereto and all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act as from time to time amended or supplemented, is herein referred to as the “Registration

 

4


Statement,” and the prospectus constituting a part of such registration statement, together with any prospectus supplement filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act relating to a particular issuance of the Shares, including all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, in each case, as from time to time amended or supplemented, is referred to herein as the “Prospectus,” except that if any revised prospectus is provided to the Agent by the Company for use in connection with the offering of the Shares that is not required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, the term “Prospectus” shall refer to such revised prospectus from and after the time it is first provided to the Agent for such use. The Registration Statement at the time it originally became effective is herein called the “Original Registration Statement.” As used in this Agreement, the terms “amendment” or “supplement” when applied to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to include the filing by the Company with the Commission of any document under the Exchange Act after the date hereof that is or is deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date; and all references in this Agreement to amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to mean and include, without limitation, the filing of any document under the Exchange Act which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date. The Company’s obligations under this Agreement to furnish, provide, deliver or make available (and all other references of like import) copies of any report or statement shall be deemed satisfied if the same is filed with the Commission through EDGAR.

At the time the Registration Statement was originally or will be declared effective and, thereafter, at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. During the Agency Period, each time the Company has filed or files an Annual Report on Form 10-K the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 thereto.

(b) Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Original Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been or will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied or will comply, to the Commission’s satisfaction, with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information, if any. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, are contemplated or threatened by the Commission.

 

5


The Prospectus when filed complied in all material respects with the Securities Act and, if filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”), was identical (except as may be permitted by Regulation S-T under the Securities Act) to the copy thereof delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective and at each Representation Date, complied and will comply, and will comply, in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. As of the date of this Agreement, the Prospectus and any Free Writing Prospectus considered together (collectively, the “Time of Sale Information”) did not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the three immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in Section 6 below. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule.

(c) Ineligible Issuer Status. As of the determination date referenced in Rule 164(h) under the Securities Act, the Company was not, is not or will not be (as applicable) an “ineligible issuer” in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to Rules 164, 405 and 433 under the Securities Act. Each Free Writing Prospectus that the Company is required to file pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act has been, or will be, filed with the Commission in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act. Each Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used or referred to by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of Rule 433 under the Securities Act, including timely filing with the Commission or retention where required and legending, and each such Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and at all subsequent times through the completion of the issuance and sale of the Shares did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any document incorporated by reference therein and not superseded or modified. Except for the Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, and electronic road shows, if any, furnished to you before first use, the Company has not prepared, used or referred to, and will not, without your prior written consent, prepare, use or refer to, any Free Writing Prospectus. Any road show, when considered together with the Prospectus, did not, as of the date of this

 

6


Agreement, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(d) Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, at the time they were filed with the Commission, complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, do not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(e) Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, and any Free Writing Prospectus or amendment or supplement thereto complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the time the Registration Statement and any amendments thereto become effective and at each Representation Date, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(f) Statistical and Market-Related Data. All statistical, demographic and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate in all material respects. To the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.

(g) Disclosure Controls and Procedures; Deficiencies in or Changes to Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. The Company has established and maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there have been no significant deficiencies or material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

7


(h) The Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.

(i) Authorization of the Shares. The Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, and the issuance and sale of the Shares is not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Shares.

(j) No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

(k) No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and Prospectus subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity (any such change being referred to herein as a “Material Adverse Change”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, including without limitation any losses or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood, earthquakes, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any strike, labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, that are material, individually or in the aggregate, to the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity, or has entered into any transactions not in the ordinary course of business; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the capital stock or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company or its subsidiaries and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or, except for dividends paid to the Company or other subsidiaries, by any of the Company’s subsidiaries on any class of capital stock, or any repurchase or redemption by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any class of capital stock.

(l) Independent Accountants. Deloitte & Touche LLP, which has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) of the Company filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is (i) an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act and the rules of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), (ii) in compliance with the applicable requirements relating to the qualification of accountants under Rule 2-01 of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act and (iii) a registered public accounting firm as defined by the PCAOB whose registration has not been suspended or revoked and who has not requested such registration to be withdrawn.

 

8


(m) Preparation of the Financial Statements. The consolidated financial statements of the Company filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the periods specified. Such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except as may be expressly stated in the related notes thereto. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. No other financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and any Free Writing Prospectus, that constitute non-GAAP financial measures (as defined by the rules and regulations under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act) comply with Regulation G under the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, as applicable. To the Company’s knowledge, no person who has been suspended or barred from being associated with a registered public accounting firm, or who has failed to comply with any sanction pursuant to Rule 5300 promulgated by the PCAOB, has participated in or otherwise aided the preparation of, or audited, the financial statements, supporting schedules or other financial data filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(n) Company’s Accounting System. The Company and each of its subsidiaries make and keep accurate books and records and maintain a system of internal accounting controls designed to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.

(o) Incorporation and Good Standing of the Company. The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation and has the corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement. The Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in the State of New Jersey and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the

 

9


conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one entity (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(p) Incorporation and Good Standing of the Companys Subsidiaries. Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation and has the power and authority (corporate or other) to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Each of the Company’s subsidiaries is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or be in good standing could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. All of the issued and outstanding capital stock or other equity or ownership interests of each of the Company’s subsidiaries have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and are owned by the Company free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K.

(q) Capitalization and Other Capital Stock Matters. The authorized, issued and outstanding capital stock of the Company is as set forth in the Prospectus under the captions “Capitalization” and “Description of Capital Stock” (other than for subsequent issuances, if any, pursuant to employee benefit plans, or upon the exercise of outstanding options or warrants, in each case as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). The Common Shares (including the Shares) conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. All of the issued and outstanding Common Shares have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws. None of the outstanding Common Shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The descriptions of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents, in all material respects, the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

(r) Stock Exchange Listing. The Common Shares are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act and are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market (the “Nasdaq”), and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Shares under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Shares from the Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Nasdaq.

 

 

10


(s) Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of its charter or by-laws, or is in default (or, with the giving of notice or lapse of time, would be in default) (“Default”) under any indenture, loan, credit agreement, note, lease, license agreement, contract, franchise or other instrument (including, without limitation, any pledge agreement, security agreement, mortgage or other instrument or agreement evidencing, guaranteeing, securing or relating to indebtedness) to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of its subsidiaries may be bound, or to which any of their respective properties or assets are subject (each, an “Existing Instrument”), except for such Defaults as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by each Applicable Prospectus and the issuance and sale of the Shares (i) have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and will not result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws of the Company or any of its subsidiaries (ii) will not conflict with or constitute a breach of, or Default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, or require the consent of any other party to, any Existing Instrument, except for such conflicts, breaches, Defaults or Debt Repayment Triggering Events or liens, charges or encumbrances that could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect and (iii) will not result in any violation of any law, administrative regulation or administrative or court decree applicable to the Company or any of its subsidiaries except for such violations as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. No consent, approval, authorization or other order of, or registration or filing with, any court or other governmental or regulatory authority or agency, is required for the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except such as have been obtained or made, or will be obtained or made, by the Company and are or will be in full force and effect under the Securities Act and such as may be required under applicable state securities or blue sky laws or the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) or Nasdaq. As used herein, a “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition which gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give, the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or any of its subsidiaries.

(t) Compliance with Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries have been and are in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations, except where failure to be so in compliance could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

11


(u) No Material Actions or Proceedings. There is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation brought by or before any governmental entity now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries, which could reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder; and the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any such subsidiary is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, if determined adversely to the Company, could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or with the employees of any principal supplier, manufacturer, customer or contractor of the Company, exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened or imminent.

(v) Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its subsidiaries own, or have obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, the material inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property (collectively “Intellectual Property”) that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (“Company Intellectual Property”). To the Company’s knowledge: (i) there are no third parties who have rights to any Intellectual Property, except for customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Company Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, that is necessary to conduct the business as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted in the future by the Company and its subsidiaries as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; and (ii), except as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, there is no infringement by third parties of any Company Intellectual Property. Except as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others, except for proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or a foreign government intellectual property office: (A) challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any granted and enforceable Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is currently unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim that, if asserted on the date hereof, could reasonably be expected to succeed; or (C) asserting that the Company or any of its subsidiaries infringes or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as under development, infringe or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is currently unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim that, if asserted on the date hereof, could reasonably be expected to succeed. Except as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. The product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company or any of its subsidiaries fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or its subsidiaries.

 

12


(w) All Necessary Permits, etc. The Company and its subsidiaries possess such valid and current certificates, authorizations or permits required by state, federal or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted and as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (“Permits”), except where the failure to so possess could not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. Except as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any of the Permits or has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of, or non-compliance with, any such certificate, authorization or permit.

(x) Title to Properties. The Company does not own any real property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all personal property and other assets reflected as owned in the financial statements referred to in Section 2(m) above (or elsewhere in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus), in each case free and clear of any security interests, mortgages, liens, encumbrances, equities, adverse claims and other defects. The real property, improvements, equipment and personal property held under lease by the Company or its subsidiaries are held under valid and enforceable leases, with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such real property, improvements, equipment or personal property by the Company or its subsidiaries.

(y) Tax Law Compliance. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed all necessary federal, state and foreign income and franchise tax returns or have properly requested extensions thereof and have paid all taxes required to be paid by any of them and, if due and payable, any related or similar assessment, fine or penalty levied against any of them except as may be being contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings. The Company has made adequate charges, accruals and reserves in the applicable financial statements referred to in Section 2(m) above in respect of all federal, state and foreign income and franchise taxes for all periods as to which the tax liability of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has not been finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacy that could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(z) Company Not an Investment Company. The Company is not, and will not be, either after receipt of payment for the Shares or after the application of the proceeds therefrom as described under “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus, required to register as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

(aa) Insurance. Each of the Company and its subsidiaries are insured by recognized, financially sound and reputable institutions with policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as are generally deemed adequate and customary for their businesses including, but not limited to, policies covering real and personal property owned or leased by the Company and its subsidiaries against theft, damage, destruction, acts of vandalism and earthquakes and policies covering the Company and its subsidiaries for product liability claims and clinical trial liability claims. The Company has no reason to believe that it or any of its subsidiaries will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been denied any insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

 

13


(bb) No Price Stabilization or Manipulation; Compliance with Regulation M. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Common Shares or of any “reference security” (as defined in Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act (“Regulation M”)) with respect to the Shares, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and has taken no action which would directly or indirectly violate Regulation M. The Company acknowledges that the Agent may engage in passive market making transactions in the Shares on the Nasdaq in accordance with Regulation M. As of the date hereof, the Common Shares are “actively traded securities” (as defined in Regulation M).

(cc) Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

(dd) FINRA Matters. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act specified in FINRA Rule 5110(b)(7)(C)(i). Neither the Company nor any of its Affiliates directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, or is a person associated with any member firm of FINRA.

(ee) No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s knowledge, after reasonable inquiry, any employee or agent of the Company or any subsidiary, has made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state or foreign office in violation of any law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

(ff) Compliance with Environmental Laws. Except as could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect: (i) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements; (iii) there are no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial

 

14


actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of its subsidiaries; and (iv) there are no events or circumstances existing as of the date hereof that might reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any private party or governmental body or agency, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws.

(gg) ERISA Compliance. The Company and its subsidiaries and any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or their “ERISA Affiliates” (as defined below) are in compliance in all material respects with ERISA. “ERISA Affiliate” means, with respect to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”) of which the Company or such subsidiary is a member. No “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates. No “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates, if such “employee benefit plan” were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA). Neither the Company, its subsidiaries nor any of their ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (ii) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code. Each employee benefit plan established or maintained by the Company, its subsidiaries or any of their ERISA Affiliates that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.

(hh) Brokers. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(ii) Forward-Looking Statements. Each financial or operational projection or other “forward-looking statement” (as defined by Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (i) was so included by the Company in good faith and with reasonable basis after due consideration by the Company of the underlying assumptions, estimates and other applicable facts and circumstances and (ii) is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying those factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statement. No such statement was made with the knowledge of an executive officer or director of the Company that is was false or misleading.

(jj) No Outstanding Loans or Other Extensions of Credit. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any outstanding extension of credit, in the form of a personal loan, to or for any director or executive officer (or equivalent thereof) of the Company and/or its subsidiary except for such extensions of credit as are expressly permitted by Section 13(k) of the Exchange Act.

 

 

15


(kk) Compliance with Health Care Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries are, and at all times have been, in compliance with all applicable Health Care Laws, except where failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” means: (i) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and all applicable foreign health care related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the Anti-Inducement Law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a(a)(5)), the U.S. Civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), all applicable federal, state, local and all foreign criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), the exclusion laws, the statutes, regulations and directives of applicable government funded or sponsored healthcare programs, and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes; (iii) the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, the Security Standards, and the Standards for Electronic Transactions and Code Sets promulgated under HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.), and the regulations promulgated thereunder and any state or non-U.S. counterpart thereof or other law or regulation the purpose of which is to protect the privacy of individuals or prescribers; (iv) the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010, the regulations promulgated thereunder; (v) the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. Section 801 et seq.); (vi) quality, safety and accreditation requirements under applicable federal, state, local or foreign laws or regulatory bodies; and (vii) all other local, state, federal, national, supranational and foreign laws, relating to the regulation of the Company or any of its subsidiaries. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in material violation of any Health Care Laws nor, to the Company’s knowledge, is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action threatened. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission). Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company, any of its subsidiaries nor any of their respective employees, officers or directors has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.

 

16


(ll) Dividend Restrictions. No subsidiary of the Company is prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company, or from making any other distribution with respect to such subsidiary’s equity securities or from repaying to the Company any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company.

(mm) Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has, in the course of its actions for, or on behalf of, the Company or any of its subsidiaries (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expenses relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any domestic government official, “foreign official” (as defined in the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “FCPA”) or employee from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the FCPA or any applicable non-U.S. anti-bribery statute or regulation; or (iv) made any unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment to any domestic government official, such foreign official or employee; and the Company and its subsidiaries and, to the knowledge of the Company, the Company’s affiliates have conducted their respective businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(nn) Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are, and have been conducted at all times, in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar applicable rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, after reasonable inquiry, threatened

(oo) Emerging Growth Company Status. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act.

(pp) Clinical Data and Regulatory Compliance. The preclinical tests and clinical trials, and other studies (collectively, “studies”) that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols, procedures and controls designed and approved for such studies and with standard medical and scientific research procedures; each description of the results of such studies is accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly presents the data derived from such studies, and the Company and its subsidiaries have no knowledge of any other studies the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; the Company and its subsidiaries have made all such filings and obtained all such approvals as may be required by the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of

 

17


Health and Human Services or any committee thereof or from any other U.S. or foreign government or drug or medical device regulatory agency, or health care facility Institutional Review Board (collectively, the “Regulatory Agencies”) except where the failure to make such filing or obtain such approval could not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of, or correspondence from, any Regulatory Agency requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any clinical trials that are described or referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; and the Company and its subsidiaries have each operated and currently are in compliance in all material respects with all applicable rules, regulations and policies of the Regulatory Agencies.

(qq) OFAC. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, after due inquiry, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of this offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, or any joint venture partner or other person or entity, for the purpose of financing the activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that currently is the subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC.

(rr) No Contract Terminations. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in any Prospectus or any Free Writing Prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or its subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

Any certificate signed by any officer or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries and delivered to the Agent or counsel for the Agent in connection with an issuance of Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agent as to the matters covered thereby on the date of such certificate.

The Company acknowledges that the Agent and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(p) hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to the Agent, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

Section 3. ISSUANCE AND SALE OF COMMON SHARES

(a) Sale of Securities. On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company may from time to time seek to sell Shares through the Agent, acting as sales agent, or directly to the Agent, acting as principal, as follows, with an aggregate Sales Price of up to the Maximum Program Amount, based on and in accordance with Issuance Notices as the Company may deliver, during the Agency Period.

 

18


(b) Mechanics of Issuances.

(i) Issuance Notice. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, on any Trading Day during the Agency Period on which the conditions set forth in Section 5(a) and Section 5(f) shall have been satisfied, the Company may exercise its right to request an issuance of Shares by delivering to the Agent an Issuance Notice; provided, however, that (A) in no event may the Company deliver an Issuance Notice to the extent that (I) the sum of (x) the aggregate Sales Price of the requested Issuance Amount, plus (y) the aggregate Sales Price of all Shares issued under all previous Issuance Notices effected pursuant to this Agreement, would exceed the Maximum Program Amount; and (B) prior to delivery of any Issuance Notice, the Selling Period for any previous Issuance Notice shall have expired or been terminated. An Issuance Notice shall be considered delivered on the Trading Day that it is received by e-mail to the persons so identified in writing by the Agent and confirmed by the Company by telephone (including a voicemail message to the persons so identified), with the understanding that, with adequate prior written notice, the Agent may modify the list of such persons from time to time.

(ii) Agent Efforts. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, upon the receipt of an Issuance Notice, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal sales and trading practices to place the Shares with respect to which the Agent has agreed to act as sales agent, subject to, and in accordance with the information specified in, the Issuance Notice, unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been suspended, cancelled or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. For the avoidance of doubt, the parties to this Agreement may modify an Issuance Notice at any time provided they both agree in writing to any such modification.

(iii) Method of Offer and Sale. The Shares may be offered and sold (A) in privately negotiated transactions with the consent of the Company, (B) as block transactions or (C) by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Principal Market or any other existing trading market of the Shares. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to require either party to agree to the method of offer and sale specified in the preceding sentence, and (except as specified in clause (B) above) the method of placement of any Shares by the Agent shall be at the Agent’s discretion.

(iv) Confirmation to the Company. If acting as sales agent hereunder, the Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day next following the Trading Day on which it has placed Shares hereunder setting forth the number of shares sold on such Trading Day, the corresponding Sales Price and the Issuance Price payable to the Company in respect thereof.

(v) Settlement. Each issuance of Shares will be settled on the applicable Settlement Date for such issuance of Shares and, subject to the provisions of Section 5, on or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting the Agent or its designee’s account at The Depository Trust

 

19


Company through its Deposit/Withdrawal At Custodian (DWAC) System, or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and, upon receipt of such Shares, which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form, the Agent will deliver, by wire transfer of immediately available funds, the related Issuance Price in same day funds delivered to an account designated by the Company prior to the Settlement Date. The Company may sell Shares to the Agent as principal at a price agreed upon at each relevant time Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement (each, a “Time of Sale”).

(vi) Suspension or Termination of Sales. Consistent with standard market settlement practices, the Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party hereto in writing or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable email), suspend any sale of Shares, and the Selling Period shall immediately terminate; provided, however, that (A) such suspension and termination shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares placed or sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice; (B) if the Company suspends or terminates any sale of Shares after the Agent confirms such sale to the Company, the Company shall still be obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares; and (C) if the Company defaults in its obligation to deliver Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that it will hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage or expense (including, without limitation, penalties, interest and reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company. The parties hereto acknowledge and agree that, in performing its obligations under this Agreement, the Agent may borrow Common Shares from stock lenders in the event that the Company has not delivered Shares to settle sales as required by subsection (v) above, and may use the Shares to settle or close out such borrowings. The Company agrees that no such notice shall be effective against the Agent unless it is made to the persons identified in writing by the Agent pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

(vii) No Guarantee of Placement, Etc. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in placing Shares and (B) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other Person if it does not sell Shares, and (C) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Agent and the Company.

(viii) Material Non-Public Information. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company shall not deliver any Issuance Notice to the Agent, and the Agent shall not be obligated to place any Shares, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information.

(c) Fees. As compensation for services rendered, the Company shall pay to the Agent, on the applicable Settlement Date, the Selling Commission for the applicable Issuance Amount (including with respect to any suspended or terminated sale pursuant to Section 3(b)(vi)) by the Agent deducting the Selling Commission from the applicable Issuance Amount.

(d) Expenses. The Company agrees to pay all costs, fees and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder and in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation (i) all expenses incident to the

 

20


issuance and delivery of the Shares (including all printing and engraving costs), (ii) all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Shares, (iii) all necessary issue, transfer and other stamp taxes in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares, (iv) all fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel, independent public or certified public accountants and other advisors, (v) all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, shipping and distribution of the Registration Statement (including financial statements, exhibits, schedules, consents and certificates of experts), the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company, and all amendments and supplements thereto, and this Agreement, (vi) all filing fees, attorneys’ fees and expenses incurred by the Company or the Agent in connection with qualifying or registering (or obtaining exemptions from the qualification or registration of) all or any part of the Shares for offer and sale under the state securities or blue sky laws or the provincial securities laws of Canada, and, if requested by the Agent, preparing and printing a “Blue Sky Survey” or memorandum and a “Canadian wrapper”, and any supplements thereto, advising the Agent of such qualifications, registrations, determinations and exemptions, (vii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s counsel, including the filing fees incident to, and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Agent in connection with, FINRA review, if any, and approval of the Agent’s participation in the offering and distribution of the Shares, (viii) the costs and expenses of the Company relating to investor presentations on any “road show” undertaken in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Shares, including, without limitation, expenses associated with the preparation or dissemination of any electronic road show, expenses associated with the production of road show slides and graphics, fees and expenses of any consultants engaged in connection with the road show presentations with the prior approval of the Company, travel and lodging expenses of the representatives, employees and officers of the Company and of the Agent and any such consultants, and the cost of any aircraft chartered in connection with the road show and (ix) the fees and expenses associated with listing the Shares on the Nasdaq. The fees and disbursements of Agent’s counsel pursuant to subsections (vi), (vii) and (viii) above shall not exceed $50,000.

Section 4. ADDITIONAL COVENANTS

The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows, in addition to any other covenants and agreements made elsewhere in this Agreement:

(a) Exchange Act Compliance. During the Agency Period, the Company shall (i) file, on a timely basis, with the Commission all reports and documents required to be filed under Section 13, 14 or 15 of the Exchange Act in the manner and within the time periods required by the Exchange Act and (ii) in the Company’s sole discretion, either (A) include in its Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, a summary detailing, for the relevant reporting period, (1) the number of Shares sold through the Agent pursuant to this Agreement and (2) the net proceeds received by the Company from such sales or (B) prepare a prospectus supplement or in such other filing permitted by the Securities Act or Exchange Act (each an “Interim Prospectus Supplement”) with such summary information and, at least once a quarter and subject to this Section 4, file such Interim Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (and within the time periods required by Rule 424(b) and Rule 430B under the Securities Act)).

 

21


(b) Securities Act Compliance. After the date of this Agreement, the Company shall promptly advise the Agent in writing (i) of the receipt of any comments of, or requests for additional or supplemental information from, the Commission, (ii) of the time and date of any filing of any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus, (iii) of the time and date that any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement becomes effective and (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus or of any order preventing or suspending the use of any Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus, or of any proceedings to remove, suspend or terminate from listing or quotation the Common Shares from any securities exchange upon which they are listed for trading or included or designated for quotation, or of the threatening or initiation of any proceedings for any of such purposes. If the Commission shall enter any such stop order at any time, the Company will use its best efforts to obtain the lifting of such order at the earliest possible moment. Additionally, the Company agrees that it shall comply with the provisions of Rule 424(b) and Rule 433, as applicable, under the Securities Act and will use its reasonable efforts to confirm that any filings made by the Company under such Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 were received in a timely manner by the Commission.

(c) Amendments and Supplements to the Prospectus and Other Securities Act Matters. If any event shall occur or condition exist as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus so that the Prospectus does not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading, or if in the opinion of the Agent or counsel for the Agent it is otherwise necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with applicable law, including the Securities Act, the Company agrees (subject to Section 3(b) and 3(c)) to promptly prepare, file with the Commission and furnish at its own expense to the Agent, amendments or supplements to the Prospectus so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, will comply with applicable law including the Securities Act. Neither the Agent’s consent to, or delivery of, any such amendment or supplement shall constitute a waiver of any of the Company’s obligations under Sections 3(b) or (c). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to file such amendment or supplement if there is no pending Issuance Notice and the Company believes that it is in its best interests not to file such amendment or supplement.

(d) Agents Review of Proposed Amendments and Supplements. Prior to amending or supplementing the Registration Statement (including any registration statement filed under Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act) or the Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement through incorporation of any report filed under the Exchange Act), the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each such proposed amendment or supplement, and the Company shall not file or use any such proposed amendment or supplement without the Agent’s prior consent, and to file with the Commission within the applicable period specified in Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act any prospectus required to be filed pursuant to such Rule.

 

22


(e) Use of Free Writing Prospectus. Neither the Company nor the Agent has prepared, used, referred to or distributed, or will prepare, use, refer to or distribute, without the other party’s prior written consent, any “written communication” that constitutes a “free writing prospectus” as such terms are defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act with respect to the offering contemplated by this Agreement (any such free writing prospectus being referred to herein as a “Free Writing Prospectus”).

(f) Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto to be prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto without the Agent’s consent. The Company shall furnish to the Agent, without charge, as many copies of any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, or used by the Company, as the Agent may reasonably request. If at any time when a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares (but in any event if at any time through and including the date of this Agreement) there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company conflicted or would conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or included or would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or would omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company shall promptly amend or supplement such free writing prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict or so that the statements in such free writing prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at such subsequent time, not misleading, as the case may be; provided, however, that prior to amending or supplementing any such free writing prospectus, the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of such proposed amended or supplemented free writing prospectus and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any such amended or supplemented free writing prospectus without the Agent’s consent.

(g) Filing of Agent Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall not to take any action that would result in the Agent or the Company being required to file with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act a free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of the Agent that the Agent otherwise would not have been required to file thereunder.

(h) Copies of Registration Statement and Prospectus. After the date of this Agreement through the last time that a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares, the Company agrees to furnish the Agent with copies (which may be electronic copies) of the Registration Statement and each amendment thereto, and with copies of the Prospectus and each amendment or supplement thereto in the form in which it is filed with the Commission

 

23


pursuant to the Securities Act or Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, both in such quantities as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time; and, if the delivery of a prospectus is required under the Securities Act or under the blue sky or securities laws of any jurisdiction at any time on or prior to the applicable Settlement Date for any Selling Period in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares and if at such time any event has occurred as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made when such Prospectus is delivered, not misleading, or, if for any other reason it is necessary during such same period to amend or supplement the Prospectus or to file under the Exchange Act any document incorporated by reference in the Prospectus in order to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to notify the Agent and to request that the Agent suspend offers to sell Shares (and, if so notified, the Agent shall cease such offers as soon as practicable); and if the Company decides to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented, to advise the Agent promptly by telephone (with confirmation in writing) and to prepare and cause to be filed promptly with the Commission an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented that will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that if during such same period the Agent is required to deliver a prospectus in respect of transactions in the Shares, the Company shall promptly prepare and file with the Commission such an amendment or supplement.

(i) Blue Sky Compliance. The Company shall cooperate with the Agent and counsel for the Agent to qualify or register the Shares for sale under (or obtain exemptions from the application of) the state securities or blue sky laws or Canadian provincial securities laws (or other foreign laws) of those jurisdictions designated by the Agent, shall comply with such laws and shall continue such qualifications, registrations and exemptions in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares. The Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation or to take any action that would subject it to general service of process in any such jurisdiction where it is not presently qualified or where it would be subject to taxation as a foreign corporation. The Company will advise the Agent promptly of the suspension of the qualification or registration of (or any such exemption relating to) the Shares for offering, sale or trading in any jurisdiction or any initiation or threat of any proceeding for any such purpose, and in the event of the issuance of any order suspending such qualification, registration or exemption, the Company shall use its best efforts to obtain the withdrawal thereof at the earliest possible moment.

(j) Earnings Statement. As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a period of at least twelve months beginning with the first fiscal quarter of the Company occurring after the date of this Agreement which shall satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

(k) Listing; Reservation of Shares. (a) The Company will maintain the listing of the Shares on the Nasdaq, and (b) the Company will reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, Shares for the purpose of enabling the Company to satisfy its obligations under this Agreement.

 

24


(l) Transfer Agent. The Company shall engage and maintain, at its expense, a registrar and transfer agent for the Shares.

(m) Due Diligence. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during normal business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time.

(n) Representations and Warranties. The Company acknowledges that each delivery of an Issuance Notice and each delivery of Shares on a Settlement Date shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation to the Agent that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such Issuance Notice or of such Settlement Date, as the case may be, as though made at and as of each such date, except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto), and (ii) an undertaking that the Company will advise the Agent if any of such representations and warranties will not be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such Issuance Notice, as though made at and as of each such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(o) Deliverables at Triggering Event Dates; Certificates. The Company agrees that on or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and, during the term of this Agreement after the date of the first Issuance Notice, upon:

(A) the filing of the Prospectus or the amendment or supplement of any Registration Statement or Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Shares or a prospectus filed pursuant to Section 4(a)(ii)(B)), by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement, but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus;

(B) the filing with the Commission of an Annual Report on Form 10-K or a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q), in each case, of the Company; or

(C) the filing with the Commission of a current report on Form 8-K of the Company containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) that is material to the offering of securities of the Company in the Agent’s reasonable discretion;

 

25


(any such event, a “Triggering Event Date”), the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (C) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such current report on Form 8-K of the Company is material) with a certificate as of the Triggering Event Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented, (A) confirming that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in this Agreement are true and correct, (B) that the Company has performed all of its obligations hereunder to be performed on or prior to the date of such certificate and as to the matters set forth in Section 5(a)(i) hereof, and (C) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 4(o) shall be waived for any Triggering Event Date occurring at a time when no Issuance Notice is pending or a suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Triggering Event Date) and the next occurring Triggering Event Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Triggering Event Date when a suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 4(o), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Shares or the Agent sells any Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 4(o) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Shares are issued.

(p) Legal Opinions. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and within five (5) Trading Days of each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished, at the request of the Agent, a negative assurances letter, a written legal opinion and an intellectual property opinion of Cooley LLP, counsel to the Company, each dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter. In lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings, in the discretion of the Agent, the Company may furnish a reliance letter from such counsel to the Agent, permitting the Agent to rely on a previously delivered opinion letter, modified as appropriate for any passage of time or Triggering Event Date (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such Triggering Event Date);

(q) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and within five (5) Trading Days of each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause Deloitte & Touche LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm who has audited the financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, to furnish the Agent a comfort letter, dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar in form and scope to comfort letters previously provided by the Company’s auditors to underwriters in connection with registered equity offerings; provided, however, that any such comfort letter will only be required on the Triggering Event Date specified to the extent that it contains financial statements filed with the Commission under the

 

26


Exchange Act and incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into a Prospectus. If requested by the Agent, the Company shall also cause a comfort letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event requiring the filing of a current report on Form 8-K containing material amended financial information of the Company, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Company shall be required to furnish no more than one comfort letter hereunder per calendar quarter.

(r) Secretarys Certificate. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice, the Company shall furnish the Agent a certificate executed by the Secretary of the Company, signing in such capacity, dated the date of delivery (i) certifying that attached thereto are true and complete copies of the resolutions duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution and delivery of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (including, without limitation, the issuance of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement), which authorization shall be in full force and effect on and as of the date of such certificate, (ii) certifying and attesting to the office, incumbency, due authority and specimen signatures of each Person who executed this Agreement for or on behalf of the Company, and (iii) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request.

(s) Agent’s Own Account; Clients’ Account. The Company consents to the Agent trading, in compliance with applicable law, in the Common Shares for the Agent’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement.

(t) Investment Limitation. The Company shall not invest, or otherwise use the proceeds received by the Company from its sale of the Shares in such a manner as would require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

(u) Market Activities. The Company will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares or any other reference security, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with all applicable provisions of Regulation M. If the limitations of Rule 102 of Regulation M (“Rule 102”) do not apply with respect to the Shares or any other reference security pursuant to any exception set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102, then promptly upon notice from the Agent (or, if later, at the time stated in the notice), the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with Rule 102 as though such exception were not available but the other provisions of Rule 102 (as interpreted by the Commission) did apply.

(v) Notice of Other Sale. Without the written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares (other than Shares hereunder), warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares, during the period beginning on the third Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Issuance Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the third Trading Day immediately following the Settlement Date with respect to Shares sold pursuant to

 

27


such Issuance Notice; provided, however, that such restriction will not be required in connection with the Company’s (i) issuance or sale of Common Shares, options to purchase Common Shares or Common Shares issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any employee or director share option, incentive or benefit plan, share purchase or ownership plan, long-term incentive plan, dividend reinvestment plan, inducement award under Nasdaq rules or other compensation plan of the Company or its subsidiaries, as in effect on the date of this Agreement, (ii) issuance or sale of Common Shares issuable upon exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other equity awards outstanding at the date of this Agreement, (iii) issuance or sale of Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations, joint ventures or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not used for capital raising purposes and (iv) modification of any outstanding options, warrants of any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares.

Section 5. CONDITIONS TO DELIVERY OF ISSUANCE NOTICES AND TO SETTLEMENT

(a) Conditions Precedent to the Right of the Company to Deliver an Issuance Notice and the Obligation of the Agent to Sell Shares During the Selling Period(s). The right of the Company to deliver an Issuance Notice hereunder is subject to the satisfaction, on the date of delivery of such Issuance Notice, and the obligation of the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares during the applicable Selling Period is subject to the satisfaction, on each Trading Day during the Selling Period, of each of the following conditions:

(b) Accuracy of the Company’s Representations and Warranties; Performance by the Company. The Company shall have delivered the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 4(o). The Company shall have performed, satisfied and complied with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by this Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company at or prior to such date, including, but not limited to, the covenants contained in Section 4(p), Section 4(q) and Section 4(r).

(c) No Injunction. No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered, promulgated or endorsed by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction or any self-regulatory organization having authority over the matters contemplated hereby that prohibits or directly and materially adversely affects any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and no proceeding shall have been commenced that may have the effect of prohibiting or materially adversely affecting any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(d) Material Adverse Changes. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, (a) in the judgment of the Agent there shall not have occurred any Material Adverse Change; and (b) there shall not have occurred any downgrading, nor shall any notice have been given of any intended or potential downgrading or of any review for a possible change that does not indicate the direction of the possible change, in the rating accorded any securities of the Company or any of its subsidiaries by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” as such term is defined for purposes of Rule 436(g)(2) under the Securities Act.

 

28


(e) No Suspension of Trading in or Delisting of Common Shares; Other Events. The trading of the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall not have been suspended by the Commission, the Principal Market or FINRA and the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall have been approved for listing or quotation on and shall not have been delisted from the Principal Market. There shall not have occurred (and be continuing in the case of occurrences under clauses (i) and (ii) below) any of the following: (i) trading or quotation in any of the Company’s securities shall have been suspended or limited by the Commission or by the Nasdaq, or trading in securities generally on either the Nasdaq shall have been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices shall have been generally established on any of such stock exchanges by the Commission or FINRA; (ii) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of federal or New York authorities; or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States’ or international political, financial or economic conditions, as in the judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impracticable to market the Shares in the manner and on the terms described in the Prospectus or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities.

(f) Documents Required to be Delivered on each Issuance Notice Date. The Agent’s obligation to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares hereunder shall additionally be conditioned upon the delivery to the Agent on or before the Issuance Notice Date of a certificate in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, executed by the Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, to the effect that all conditions to the delivery of such Issuance Notice shall have been satisfied as at the date of such certificate (which certificate shall not be required if the foregoing representations shall be set forth in the Issuance Notice).

(g) No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

Section 6. INDEMNIFICATION AND CONTRIBUTION

(a) Indemnification of the Agent. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its officers and employees, and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be

 

29


stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading ;and to reimburse the Agent and each such officer, employee and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the Agent) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided, however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in subsection (b) below. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(a) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Company may otherwise have.

(b) Indemnification of the Company, its Directors and Officers. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signed the Registration Statement and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Company or any such director, officer or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; but, for each of (i) and (ii) above, only to the extent arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information set forth in the fifth and ninth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus, and to reimburse the Company and each such director, officer and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the Company) as such

 

30


expenses are reasonably incurred by the Company or such officer, director or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Agent or the Company may otherwise have.

(c) Notifications and Other Indemnification Procedures. Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 6 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against an indemnifying party under this Section 6, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof, but the omission so to notify the indemnifying party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any indemnified party for contribution or otherwise than under the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6 or to the extent it is not prejudiced as a proximate result of such failure. In case any such action is brought against any indemnified party and such indemnified party seeks or intends to seek indemnity from an indemnifying party, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall elect, jointly with all other indemnifying parties similarly notified, by written notice delivered to the indemnified party promptly after receiving the aforesaid notice from such indemnified party, to assume the defense thereof with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party; provided, however, if the defendants in any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded based on the advice of counsel that a conflict may arise between the positions of the indemnifying party and the indemnified party in conducting the defense of any such action or that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, the indemnified party or parties shall have the right to select separate counsel to assume such legal defenses and to otherwise participate in the defense of such action on behalf of such indemnified party or parties. Upon receipt of notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of such indemnifying party’s election so to assume the defense of such action and approval by the indemnified party of counsel, the indemnifying party will not be liable to such indemnified party under this Section 6 for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof unless (i) the indemnified party shall have employed separate counsel in accordance with the proviso to the preceding sentence (it being understood, however, that the indemnifying party shall not be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate counsel (together with local counsel), representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action), which counsel (together with any local counsel) for the indemnified parties shall be selected by the Agent (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in Section 6(a) above), (ii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of commencement of the action or (iii) the indemnifying party has authorized in writing the employment of counsel for the indemnified party at the expense of the indemnifying party, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the indemnifying party and shall be paid as they are incurred.

 

31


(d) Settlements. The indemnifying party under this Section 6 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by Section 6(c) hereof, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding.

(e) Contribution. If the indemnification provided for in this Section 6 is for any reason held to be unavailable to or otherwise insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party in respect of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the aggregate amount paid or payable by such indemnified party, as incurred, as a result of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement shall be deemed to be in the same respective proportions as the total gross proceeds from the offering of the Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total commissions received by the Agent. The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any such untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company, on the one hand, or the Agent, on the other hand, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses referred to above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(c), any legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any action or claim. The provisions set forth in Section 6(c) with respect to notice of commencement of any action shall apply if a claim for contribution is to be made under this Section 6(d); provided, however, that no additional notice shall be required with respect to any action for which notice has been given under Section 6(c) for purposes of indemnification.

 

32


The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 6(d) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this Section 6(d).

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6(d), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the agent fees received by the Agent in connection with the offering contemplated hereby. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 6(d), each officer and employee of the Agent and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Agent, and each director of the Company, each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company.

Section 7. TERMINATION & SURVIVAL

(a) Term. Subject to the provisions of this Section 7, the term of this Agreement shall continue from the date of this Agreement until the end of the Agency Period, unless earlier terminated by the parties to this Agreement pursuant to this Section 7.

(b) Termination; Survival Following Termination. (i) Either party may terminate this Agreement prior to the end of the Agency Period, by giving written notice as required by this Agreement, upon one Trading Day’s notice to the other party; provided that, (A) if the Company terminates this Agreement after the Agent confirms to the Company any sale of Shares, the Company shall remain obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares and (B) Section 2, Section 6, Section 7 and Section 8 shall survive termination of this Agreement. If termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such sale shall nevertheless settle in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.

(ii) In addition to the survival provision of Section 7(b)(i), the respective indemnities, agreements, representations, warranties and other statements of the Company, of its officers and of the Agent set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent or the Company or any of its or their partners, officers or directors or any controlling person, as the case may be, and, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares sold hereunder and any termination of this Agreement.

Section 8. MISCELLANEOUS

(a) Press Releases and Disclosure. The Company may issue a press release describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby as soon as practicable following the date of this Agreement, and may file with the Commission a Current Report on Form 8-K, with this Agreement attached as an exhibit thereto, describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall consult with the Agent prior to

 

33


making such disclosures, and the parties hereto shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosures that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto. No party hereto shall issue thereafter any press release or like public statement (including, without limitation, any disclosure required in reports filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act) related to this Agreement or any of the transactions contemplated hereby without the prior written approval of the other party hereto, except as may be necessary or appropriate in the reasonable opinion of the party seeking to make disclosure to comply with the requirements of applicable law or stock exchange rules. If any such press release or like public statement is so required, the party making such disclosure shall consult with the other party prior to making such disclosure, and the parties shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosure that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto.

(b) No Advisory or Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the determination of any fees, are arm’s-length commercial transactions between the Company and the Agent, (ii) when acting as a principal under this Agreement, the Agent is and has been acting solely as a principal is not the agent or fiduciary of the Company, or its stockholders, creditors, employees or any other party, (iii) the Agent has not assumed nor will assume an advisory or fiduciary responsibility in favor of the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby or the process leading thereto (irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is currently advising the Company on other matters) and the Agent does not have any obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement, (iv) the Agent and its affiliates may be engaged in a broad range of transactions that involve interests that differ from those of the Company, and (v) the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby and the Company has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it deemed appropriate.

(c) Research Analyst Independence. The Company acknowledges that the Agent’s research analysts and research departments are required to and should be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and as such the Agent’s research analysts may hold views and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company or the offering that differ from the views of their respective investment banking divisions. The Company understands that the Agent is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short positions in debt or equity securities of the companies that may be the subject of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(d) Notices. All communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be mailed, hand delivered or telecopied and confirmed to the parties hereto as follows:

If to the Agent:

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

 

34


New York, NY 10022

Facsimile: (646) 619-4437

Attention: General Counsel

with a copy to:

Goodwin Procter LLP

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, NY 10018

Facsimile: (212) 813-8800

Attention: Seo Salimi

If to the Company:

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

1601 Trapelo Road

Suite 286

Waltham, MA 02451

Attention: Remy Luthringer

with a copy to:

Cooley LLP

500 Boylston Street, 14th Floor

Boston, MA 02116

Facsimile: (617) 937-2400

Attention: Ryan Sansom and Daniel I. Goldberg

Any party hereto may change the address for receipt of communications by giving written notice to the others in accordance with this Section 8(d).

(e) Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, and to the benefit of the employees, officers and directors and controlling persons referred to in Section 6, and in each case their respective successors, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder. The term “successors” shall not include any purchaser of the Shares as such from the Agent merely by reason of such purchase.

(f) Partial Unenforceability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other Article, Section, paragraph or provision hereof. If any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement is for any reason determined to be invalid or unenforceable, there shall be deemed to be made such minor changes (and only such minor changes) as are necessary to make it valid and enforceable.

 

35


(g) Governing Law Provisions. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and to be performed in such state. Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction (except for proceedings instituted in regard to the enforcement of a judgment of any such court, as to which such jurisdiction is non-exclusive) of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The parties irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim in any such court that any such suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

(h) General Provisions. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement of the parties to this Agreement and supersedes all prior written or oral and all contemporaneous oral agreements, understandings and negotiations with respect to the subject matter hereof. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each one of which shall be an original, with the same effect as if the signatures thereto and hereto were upon the same instrument, and may be delivered by facsimile transmission or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file. This Agreement may not be amended or modified unless in writing by all of the parties hereto, and no condition herein (express or implied) may be waived unless waived in writing by each party whom the condition is meant to benefit. The Article and Section headings herein are for the convenience of the parties only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Agreement.

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

 

36


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, kindly sign and return to the Company the enclosed copies hereof, whereupon this instrument, along with all counterparts hereof, shall become a binding agreement in accordance with its terms

 

Very truly yours,
MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.
By:  

/s/ Richard Russell

  Name: Richard Russell
  Title: President


The foregoing Agreement is hereby confirmed and accepted by the Agent in New York, New York as of the date first above written.

 

JEFFERIES LLC
By:  

/s/ Jesse Mark

  Name: Jesse Mark
  Title: Managing Director

 

38


EXHIBIT A

ISSUANCE NOTICE

[Date]

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Attn: [__________]

Reference is made to the Open Market Sale Agreement between Minerva Neurosciences, Inc. (the “Company”) and Jefferies LLC (the “Agent”) dated as of                      , 2018. The Company confirms that all conditions to the delivery of this Issuance Notice are satisfied as of the date hereof.

Date of Delivery of Issuance Notice (determined pursuant to Section 3(b)(i)): _______________________

Issuance Amount (equal to the total Sales Price for such Shares):

 

                                                                                   
Number of Days in Selling Period:   

 

  
First Date of Selling Period:   

 

  
Last Date of Selling Period:   

 

  

Settlement Date(s) if other than standard T+2 settlement:

 

  

 

  

Floor Price Limitation (in no event less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which consent may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion): $             per share

Comments:                                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

                                                     
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:

 

A-1

EX-4.6

EXHIBIT 4.6

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.,

Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of [•], 20        

 

 

Debt Securities


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          PAGE  

ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

   Definitions of Terms      1  

ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     5  

Section 2.01

   Designation and Terms of Securities      5  

Section 2.02

   Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate      8  

Section 2.03

   Denominations: Provisions for Payment      8  

Section 2.04

   Execution and Authentications      10  

Section 2.05

   Registration of Transfer and Exchange      10  

Section 2.06

   Temporary Securities      12  

Section 2.07

   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities      12  

Section 2.08

   Cancellation      13  

Section 2.09

   Benefits of Indenture      13  

Section 2.10

   Authenticating Agent      13  

Section 2.11

   Global Securities      14  

Section 2.12

   CUSIP Numbers      15  

ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

     15  

Section 3.01

   Redemption      15  

Section 3.02

   Notice of Redemption      16  

Section 3.03

   Payment Upon Redemption      17  

Section 3.04

   Sinking Fund      17  

Section 3.05

   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      17  

Section 3.06

   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      18  

ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS

     18  

Section 4.01

   Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest      18  

Section 4.02

   Maintenance of Office or Agency      18  

Section 4.03

   Paying Agents      19  

Section 4.04

   Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee          20  

 

i.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

          PAGE  

ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

     20  

Section 5.01

   Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders      20  

Section 5.02

   Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders      20  

Section 5.03

   Reports by the Company      21  

Section 5.04

   Reports by the Trustee      21  

ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     22  

Section 6.01

   Events of Default      22  

Section 6.02

   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      24  

Section 6.03

   Application of Moneys Collected      25  

Section 6.04

   Limitation on Suits      25  

Section 6.05

   Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver      26  

Section 6.06

   Control by Securityholders      27  

Section 6.07

   Undertaking to Pay Costs      27  

ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     28  

Section 7.01

   Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee      28  

Section 7.02

   Certain Rights of Trustee      29  

Section 7.03

   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities      31  

Section 7.04

   May Hold Securities      31  

Section 7.05

   Moneys Held in Trust      31  

Section 7.06

   Compensation and Reimbursement      31  

Section 7.07

   Reliance on Officer’s Certificate      32  

Section 7.08

   Disqualification; Conflicting Interests      32  

Section 7.09

   Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility      33  

Section 7.10

   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor      33  

Section 7.11

   Acceptance of Appointment By Successor      34  

Section 7.12

   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business          35  

 

ii.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

          PAGE  

Section 7.13

   Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company      36  

Section 7.14

   Notice of Default      36  

ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     36  

Section 8.01

   Evidence of Action by Securityholders      36  

Section 8.02

   Proof of Execution by Securityholders      37  

Section 8.03

   Who May be Deemed Owners      37  

Section 8.04

   Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded      37  

Section 8.05

   Actions Binding on Future Securityholders      38  

ARTICLE 9

   SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES      38  

Section 9.01

   Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders      38  

Section 9.02

   Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders      39  

Section 9.03

   Effect of Supplemental Indentures      40  

Section 9.04

   Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures      40  

Section 9.05

   Execution of Supplemental Indentures      40  

ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     41  

Section 10.01

   Company May Consolidate, Etc.      41  

Section 10.02

   Successor Entity Substituted      41  

ARTICLE 11

   SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE      42  

Section 11.01

   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      42  

Section 11.02

   Discharge of Obligations      42  

Section 11.03

   Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust      43  

Section 11.04

   Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents      43  

Section 11.05

   Repayment to Company      43  

ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     44  

Section 12.01

   No Recourse      44  

ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     44  

Section 13.01

   Effect on Successors and Assigns      44  

Section 13.02

   Actions by Successor      44  

Section 13.03

   Surrender of Company Powers          44  

 

iii.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

 

          PAGE  

Section 13.04

   Notices      44  

Section 13.05

   Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver      45  

Section 13.06

   Treatment of Securities as Debt      45  

Section 13.07

   Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent      45  

Section 13.08

   Payments on Business Days      46  

Section 13.09

   Conflict with Trust Indenture Act      46  

Section 13.10

   Counterparts      46  

Section 13.11

   Separability      46  

Section 13.12

   Compliance Certificates      46  

Section 13.13

   Patriot Act      47  

Section 13.14

   Force Majeure      47  

Section 13.12

   Table of Contents; Headings      47  

 

 

iv.


INDENTURE

INDENTURE, dated as of [•], 20        , among MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

1


Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                     .

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Holder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

 

2


Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

3


Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

4


Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

Trustee” means                                 , and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(3) the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

(4) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

 

5


(5) the applicability of any guarantees;

(6) whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

(7) whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

(8) if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(9) the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

(10) the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

(11) if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

(12) the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

(13) the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

(14) any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(15) whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

6


(16) if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

(17) if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(18) additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

(19) additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

(20) additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

(21) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(22) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

(23) the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

(24) whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(25) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

(26) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

 

7


(27) any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustees Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

8


Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

9


Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

10


(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as initial Security Registrar for each series of Securities

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d) The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

11


The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

Section 2.06 Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

12


Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08 Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the

 

13


Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11 Global Securities.

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company

 

14


will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

Section 3.01 Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

15


Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Securityholders, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected, by lot, on a pro rata basis, or in such other manner as the Company shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

16


Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Securityholder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund.

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made

 

17


pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date shall be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and the Company shall cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above

 

18


authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

Section 4.03 Paying Agents.

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

19


(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

20


(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 5.03 Reports by the Company.

(a) The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

(b) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

(a) If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall send to the Securityholders a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

21


(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 6.01 Events of Default.

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

22


(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

(c) At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

23


Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

(a) The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

24


In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Securityholder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such Securityholder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding

 

25


shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such Securityholder or Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

26


Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

27


ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

(A) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(B) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

(iv) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

 

28


(v) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

(vi) The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

(vii) No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized Officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in

 

29


writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(h) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

(i) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

(j) The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that such instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture.

 

30


(k) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and under the Securities, and each agent, custodian or other person employed to act under this Indenture.

(l) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default constituting the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities if the Trustee also serves the paying agent for such Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

Section 7.04 May Hold Securities.

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

(a) The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

31


(b) The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

(c) The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

(d) To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

Section 7.07 Reliance on Officers Certificate.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

32


Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and the Securityholders of such series. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the sending of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

33


(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of any amounts due to it pursuant to the provisions of Section 7.06, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm

 

34


to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall send notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder to the Securityholders. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09,

 

35


without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

Section 7.14 Notice of Default.

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall send to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

ARTICLE 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders

 

36


of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners.

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee

 

37


actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;

(b) to comply with Article Ten;

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

38


(d) to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

(f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

(g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or

(i) to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.

 

39


It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by the terms of this Article and that all conditions precedent to the execution of the supplemental indenture have been complied with; provided, however, that such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

40


Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall (or shall direct the Trustee to) send a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby .as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to send, or cause the sending of, such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE 10

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.

Nothing contained in this Indenture shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors); provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction) or any such sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition (other than a sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition to a Subsidiary of the Company), the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

41


(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

ARTICLE 11

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated and not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.10, 11.5 and 13.04, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations.

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4,03, 7.06, 7.10, 11.05 and 13.04 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid.

 

42


Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.

Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

Section 11.05 Repayment to Company.

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, or such other shorter period set forth in applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or upon the Company’s request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as a general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

 

43


ARTICLE 12

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

Section 12.01 No Recourse.

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

ARTICLE 13

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns.

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 13.02 Actions by Successor.

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers.

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

Section 13.04 Notices.

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying or other agent under this Indenture or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: 3030 Bunker Hill Street, Suite 230, San Diego, California 92109. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

44


Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver.

This Indenture and each Security shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

EACH PARTY HERETO, AND EACH HOLDER OF A SECURITY BY ACCEPTANCE THEREOF, HEREBY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY LITIGATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OUT OF, UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE.

Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt.

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent.

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12 of this Indenture or Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall include (i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is reasonably necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

45


Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days.

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

Section 13.10 Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 13.11 Separability.

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.12, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such an Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Event of Default and its status.

 

46


Section 13.13 U.S.A Patriot Act.

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

Section 13.14 Force Majeure.

In no event shall the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions or utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 13.15 Table of Contents; Headings.

The table of contents and headings of the articles and sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not intended to be considered a part hereof, and will not modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

47


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

[TRUSTEE], as Trustee
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

 

48


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended

  

Section of Indenture

310(a)

   7.09

310(b)

   7.08
   7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)

   7.13

311(b)

   7.13

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   5.01
   5.02(a)

312(b)

   5.02(c)

312(c)

   5.02(c)

313(a)

   5.04(a)

313(b)

   5.04(b)

313(c)

   5.04(a)
   5.04(b)

313(d)

   5.04(c)

314(a)

   5.03
   13.12

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   13.07(a)

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   13.07(b)

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.01(a)
   7.01(b)

315(b)

   7.14

315(c)

   7.01

315(d)

   7.01(b)

315(e)

   6.07

316(a)

   6.06
   8.04

316(b)

   6.04

316(c)

   8.01

317(a)

   6.02

317(b)

   4.03

318(a)

   13.09

 

(1)

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

49

EX-4.8

EXHIBIT 4.8

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

and

            , AS WARRANT AGENT

FORM OF COMMON STOCK

WARRANT AGREEMENT

DATED AS OF [    ], 20


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

FORM OF COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT

COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”), dated as of                  between MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and                 , a [corporation] [national banking association] organized and existing under the laws of                  and having a corporate trust office in                 , as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”).

WHEREAS, the Company proposes to sell [if Warrants are sold with other securities—[title of such other securities being offered] (the “Other Securities”) with] warrant certificates evidencing one or more warrants (the “Warrants” or, individually, a “Warrant”) representing the right to purchase Common Stock of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), such warrant certificates and other warrant certificates issued pursuant to this Agreement being herein called the “Warrant Certificates”; and

WHEREAS, the Company desires the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrant Certificates, and in this Agreement wishes to set forth, among other things, the form and provisions of the Warrant Certificates and the terms and conditions on which they may be issued, registered, transferred, exchanged, exercised and replaced.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of the mutual agreements herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows:

ARTICLE 1

ISSUANCE OF WARRANTS AND EXECUTION AND DELIVERY OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

1.1 Issuance Of Warrants. [If Warrants alone—Upon issuance, each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] [If Other Securities and Warrants—Warrant Certificates shall be [initially] issued in connection with the issuance of the Other Securities [but shall be separately transferable on and after                  (the “Detachable Date”)] [and shall not be separately transferable] and each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] Each Warrant evidenced thereby shall represent the right, subject to the provisions contained herein and therein, to purchase one Warrant Security. [If Other Securities and Warrants—Warrant Certificates shall be initially issued in units with the Other Securities and each Warrant Certificate included in such a unit shall evidence                  Warrants for each [$                 principal amount] [                 shares] of Other Securities included in such unit.]

1.2 Execution And Delivery Of Warrant Certificates. Each Warrant Certificate, whenever issued, shall be in registered form substantially in the form set forth in Exhibit A hereto, shall be dated the date of its countersignature by the Warrant Agent and may have such letters, numbers, or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the officers of the Company executing the same may approve (execution thereof to be conclusive evidence of such approval) and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which the Warrants may be listed, or to conform to usage. The Warrant Certificates shall be signed on behalf of the Company by any of its present or future chief executive officers, presidents, senior vice presidents, vice presidents, chief financial officers, chief legal officers, treasurers, assistant treasurers, controllers, assistant controllers, secretaries or assistant secretaries under its corporate seal reproduced thereon. Such signatures may be manual or facsimile signatures of such authorized officers and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates.

No Warrant Certificate shall be valid for any purpose, and no Warrant evidenced thereby shall be exercisable, until such Warrant Certificate has been countersigned by the manual signature of the Warrant Agent. Such signature by the Warrant Agent upon any Warrant Certificate executed by the Company shall be conclusive evidence that the Warrant Certificate so countersigned has been duly issued hereunder.

 

2


In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of the Warrant Certificates either manually or by facsimile signature shall cease to be such officer before the Warrant Certificates so signed shall have been countersigned and delivered by the Warrant Agent, such Warrant Certificates may be countersigned and delivered notwithstanding that the person who signed Warrant Certificates ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant Certificate may be signed on behalf of the Company by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant Certificate, shall be the proper officers of the Company, although at the date of the execution of this Agreement any such person was not such officer.

The term “holder” or “holder of a Warrant Certificate” as used herein shall mean any person in whose name at the time any Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose [If Other Securities and Warrants are not immediately detachable—or upon the registration of the Other Securities prior to the Detachable Date. Prior to the Detachable Date, the Company will, or will cause the registrar of the Other Securities to, make available at all times to the Warrant Agent such information as to holders of the Other Securities as may be necessary to keep the Warrant Agent’s records up to date].

1.3 Issuance Of Warrant Certificates. Warrant Certificates evidencing the right to purchase Warrant Securities may be executed by the Company and delivered to the Warrant Agent upon the execution of this Warrant Agreement or from time to time thereafter. The Warrant Agent shall, upon receipt of Warrant Certificates duly executed on behalf of the Company, countersign such Warrant Certificates and shall deliver such Warrant Certificates to or upon the order of the Company.

ARTICLE 2

WARRANT PRICE, DURATION AND EXERCISE OF WARRANTS

2.1 Warrant Price. During the period specified in Section 2.2, each Warrant shall, subject to the terms of this Warrant Agreement and the applicable Warrant Certificate, entitle the holder thereof to purchase the number of Warrant Securities specified in the applicable Warrant Certificate at an exercise price of $                 per Warrant Security, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, as hereinafter provided. Such purchase price per Warrant Security is referred to in this Agreement as the “Warrant Price.”

2.2 Duration Of Warrants. Each Warrant may be exercised in whole or in part at any time, as specified herein, on or after [the date thereof] [                ] and at or before [                ] p.m., [                ] time, on [                ] or such later date as the Company may designate by notice to the Warrant Agent and the holders of Warrant Certificates mailed to their addresses as set forth in the record books of the Warrant Agent (the “Expiration Date”). Each Warrant not exercised at or before [                ] p.m., [                ] time, on the Expiration Date shall become void, and all rights of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant under this Agreement shall cease.

2.3 Exercise Of Warrants.

(a) During the period specified in Section 2.2, the Warrants may be exercised to purchase a whole number of Warrant Securities in registered form by providing certain information as set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate and by paying in full, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds] the Warrant Price for each Warrant Security with respect to which a Warrant is being exercised to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office, provided that such exercise is subject to receipt within five business days of such payment by the Warrant Agent of the Warrant Certificate with the form of election to purchase Warrant Securities set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate properly completed and duly executed. The date on which payment in full of the Warrant Price is received by the Warrant Agent shall, subject to receipt of the Warrant Certificate as aforesaid, be deemed to be the date on which the Warrant is exercised; provided, however, that if, at the date of receipt of such Warrant Certificates and payment in full of the Warrant Price, the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be closed, no such receipt of such

 

3


Warrant Certificates and no such payment of such Warrant Price shall be effective to constitute the person so designated to be named as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities on such date, but shall be effective to constitute such person as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities for all purposes at the opening of business on the next succeeding day on which the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be opened, and the certificates for the Warrant Securities in respect of which such Warrants are then exercised shall be issuable as of the date on such next succeeding day on which the transfer books shall next be opened, and until such date the Company shall be under no duty to deliver any certificate for such Warrant Securities. The Warrant Agent shall deposit all funds received by it in payment of the Warrant Price in an account of the Company maintained with it and shall advise the Company by telephone at the end of each day on which a payment for the exercise of Warrants is received of the amount so deposited to its account. The Warrant Agent shall promptly confirm such telephone advice to the Company in writing.

(b) The Warrant Agent shall, from time to time, as promptly as practicable, advise the Company of (i) the number of Warrant Securities with respect to which Warrants were exercised, (ii) the instructions of each holder of the Warrant Certificates evidencing such Warrants with respect to delivery of the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled upon such exercise, (iii) delivery of Warrant Certificates evidencing the balance, if any, of the Warrants for the remaining Warrant Securities after such exercise, and (iv) such other information as the Company shall reasonably require.

(c) As soon as practicable after the exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall issue to or upon the order of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled, in fully registered form, registered in such name or names as may be directed by such holder. If fewer than all of the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificate are exercised, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, a new Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised.

(d) The Company shall not be required to pay any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge required to be paid in connection with any transfer involved in the issue of the Warrant Securities, and in the event that any such transfer is involved, the Company shall not be required to issue or deliver any Warrant Security until such tax or other charge shall have been paid or it has been established to the Company’s satisfaction that no such tax or other charge is due.

(e) Prior to the issuance of any Warrants there shall have been reserved, and the Company shall at all times through the Expiration Date keep reserved, out of its authorized but unissued Warrant Securities, a number of shares sufficient to provide for the exercise of the Warrants.

ARTICLE 3

OTHER PROVISIONS RELATING TO RIGHTS OF HOLDERS OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

3.1 No Rights As Warrant Securityholder Conferred By Warrants Or Warrant Certificates. No Warrant Certificate or Warrant evidenced thereby shall entitle the holder thereof to any of the rights of a holder of Warrant Securities, including, without limitation, the right to receive the payment of dividends or distributions, if any, on the Warrant Securities or to exercise any voting rights, except to the extent expressly set forth in this Agreement or the applicable Warrant Certificate.

3.2 Lost, Stolen, Mutilated Or Destroyed Warrant Certificates. Upon receipt by the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it and the Company of the ownership of and the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of any Warrant Certificate and/or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Warrant Agent and the Company and, in the case of mutilation, upon surrender of the mutilated Warrant Certificate to the Warrant Agent for cancellation, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Warrant Agent that such Warrant Certificate has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, in exchange for or in lieu of the lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated Warrant Certificate, a new Warrant Certificate of the same tenor and evidencing Warrants for a like number of Warrant Securities. Upon the issuance of any new Warrant Certificate under this Section 3.2, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in

 

4


relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Warrant Agent) in connection therewith. Every substitute Warrant Certificate executed and delivered pursuant to this Section 3.2 in lieu of any lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall represent an additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to the benefits of this Agreement equally and proportionately with any and all other Warrant Certificates duly executed and delivered hereunder. The provisions of this Section 3.2 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement of mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificates.

3.3 Holder Of Warrant Certificate May Enforce Rights. Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Agreement, any holder of a Warrant Certificate, without the consent of the Warrant Agent, the holder of any Warrant Securities or the holder of any other Warrant Certificate, may, in such holder’s own behalf and for such holder’s own benefit, enforce, and may institute and maintain any suit, action or proceeding against the Company suitable to enforce, or otherwise in respect of, such holder’s right to exercise the Warrants evidenced by such holder’s Warrant Certificate in the manner provided in such holder’s Warrant Certificate and in this Agreement.

3.4 Adjustments.

(a) In case the Company shall at any time subdivide its outstanding shares of Common Stock into a greater number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such subdivision shall be proportionately reduced and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately increased. Conversely, in case the outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company shall be combined into a smaller number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such combination shall be proportionately increased and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately decreased.

(b) If at any time or from time to time the holders of Common Stock (or any shares of stock or other securities at the time receivable upon the exercise of the Warrants) shall have received or become entitled to receive, without payment therefore,

(i) Common Stock or any shares of stock or other securities which are at any time directly or indirectly convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, or any rights or options to subscribe for, purchase or otherwise acquire any of the foregoing by way of dividend or other distribution;

(ii) any cash paid or payable otherwise than as a cash dividend paid or payable out of the Company’s current or retained earnings;

(iii) any evidence of the Company’s indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase the Company’s indebtedness; or

(iv) Common Stock or additional stock or other securities or property (including cash) by way of spinoff, split-up, reclassification, combination of shares or similar corporate rearrangement (other than shares of Common Stock issued as a stock split or adjustments in respect of which shall be covered by the terms of Section 3.4(a) above), then and in each such case, the holder of each Warrant shall, upon the exercise of the Warrant, be entitled to receive, in addition to the number of Warrant Securities receivable thereupon, and without payment of any additional consideration therefore, the amount of stock and other securities and property (including cash and indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase indebtedness) which such holder would hold on the date of such exercise had he been the holder of record of such Warrant Securities as of the date on which holders of Common Stock received or became entitled to receive such shares or all other additional stock and other securities and property.

(c) In case of (i) any reclassification, capital reorganization, or change in the Common Stock of the Company (other than as a result of a subdivision, combination, or stock dividend provided for in Section 3.4(a) or Section 3.4(b) above), (ii) share exchange, merger or similar transaction of the Company with or into another person or entity (other than a share exchange, merger or similar transaction in which the Company is the acquiring or surviving corporation and which does not result in any change in the Common Stock other than the

 

5


issuance of additional shares of Common Stock) or (iii) the sale, exchange, lease, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company as an entirety (in any such case, a “Reorganization Event”), then, as a condition of such Reorganization Event, lawful provisions shall be made, and duly executed documents evidencing the same from the Company or its successor shall be delivered to the holders of the Warrants, so that the holders of the Warrants shall have the right at any time prior to the expiration of the Warrants to purchase, at a total price equal to that payable upon the exercise of the Warrants, the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property receivable in connection with such Reorganization Event by a holder of the same number of Warrant Securities as were purchasable by the holders of the Warrants immediately prior to such Reorganization Event. In any such case appropriate provisions shall be made with respect to the rights and interests of the holders of the Warrants so that the provisions hereof shall thereafter be applicable with respect to any shares of stock or other securities and property deliverable upon exercise the Warrants, and appropriate adjustments shall be made to the Warrant Price payable hereunder provided the aggregate purchase price shall remain the same. In the case of any transaction described in clauses (ii) and (iii) above, the Company shall thereupon be relieved of any further obligation hereunder or under the Warrants, and the Company as the predecessor corporation may thereupon or at any time thereafter be dissolved, wound up or liquidated. Such successor or assuming entity thereupon may cause to be signed, and may issue either in its own name or in the name of the Company, any or all of the Warrants issuable hereunder which heretofore shall not have been signed by the Company, and may execute and deliver securities in its own name, in fulfillment of its obligations to deliver Warrant Securities upon exercise of the Warrants. All the Warrants so issued shall in all respects have the same legal rank and benefit under this Agreement as the Warrants theretofore or thereafter issued in accordance with the terms of this Agreement as though all of such Warrants had been issued at the date of the execution hereof. In any case of any such Reorganization Event, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Warrants thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate. The Warrant Agent may receive a written opinion of legal counsel as conclusive evidence that any such Reorganization Event complies with the provisions of this Section 3.4.

(d) The Company may, at its option, at any time until the Expiration Date, reduce the then current Warrant Price to any amount deemed appropriate by the Board of Directors of the Company for any period not exceeding twenty consecutive days (as evidenced in a resolution adopted by such Board of Directors), but only upon giving the notices required by Section 3.5 at least ten days prior to taking such action.

(e) Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, no adjustment in the Warrant Price shall be made by reason of the issuance of shares of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, or securities carrying the right to purchase any of the foregoing or for any other reason whatsoever.

(f) No fractional Warrant Securities shall be issued upon the exercise of Warrants. If more than one Warrant shall be exercised at one time by the same holder, the number of full Warrant Securities which shall be issuable upon such exercise shall be computed on the basis of the aggregate number of Warrant Securities purchased pursuant to the Warrants so exercised. Instead of any fractional Warrant Security which would otherwise be issuable upon exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall pay a cash adjustment in respect of such fraction in an amount equal to the same fraction of the last sales price (or bid price if there were no sales) per Warrant Security, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Warrant Securities are listed or admitted to trading on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise or, if the Warrant Securities are not then listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board Service (the “OTC Bulletin Board”) operated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) or, if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system on such date, or if on any such date the Warrant Securities are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, an amount equal to the same fraction of the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose at the close of business on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise.

 

6


(g) Whenever the Warrant Price then in effect is adjusted as herein provided, the Company shall mail to each holder of the Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Company a statement setting forth the adjusted Warrant Price then and thereafter effective under the provisions hereof, together with the facts, in reasonable detail, upon which such adjustment is based.

(h) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, in no event shall the Warrant Price, as adjusted in accordance with the terms hereof, be less than the par value per share of Common Stock.

3.5 Notice To Warrantholders. In case the Company shall (a) effect any dividend or distribution described in Section 3.4(b), (b) effect any Reorganization Event, (c) make any distribution on or in respect of the Common Stock in connection with the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Company, or (d) reduce the then current Warrant Price pursuant to Section 3.4(d), then the Company shall mail to each holder of Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Warrant Agent, at least ten days prior to the applicable date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the record date for such dividend or distribution, or, if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of record of Common Stock that will be entitled to such dividend or distribution are to be determined, (y) the date on which such Reorganization Event, dissolution, liquidation or winding up is expected to become effective, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of Common Stock for securities or other property deliverable upon such Reorganization Event, dissolution, liquidation or winding up, or (z) the first date on which the then current Warrant Price shall be reduced pursuant to Section 3.4(d). No failure to mail such notice nor any defect therein or in the mailing thereof shall affect any such transaction or any adjustment in the Warrant Price required by Section 3.4.

3.6 [If The Warrants Are Subject To Acceleration By The Company, Insert—Acceleration Of Warrants By The Company.

(a) At any time on or after                 , the Company shall have the right to accelerate any or all Warrants at any time by causing them to expire at the close of business on the day next preceding a specified date (the “Acceleration Date”), if the Market Price (as hereinafter defined) of the Common Stock equals or exceeds                  percent (                %) of the then effective Warrant Price on any twenty Trading Days (as hereinafter defined) within a period of thirty consecutive Trading Days ending no more than five Trading Days prior to the date on which the Company gives notice to the Warrant Agent of its election to accelerate the Warrants.

(b)Market Price” for each Trading Day shall be, if the Common Stock is listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the last reported sale price, regular way (or, if no such price is reported, the average of the reported closing bid and asked prices, regular way) of Common Stock, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Common Stock is listed or admitted to trading or, if not listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board operated by FINRA, or if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, or if on any such date the shares of Common Stock are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose. “Trading Day” shall be each Monday through Friday, other than any day on which securities are not traded in the system or on the exchange that is the principal market for the Common Stock, as determined by the Board of Directors of the Company.

(c) In the event of an acceleration of less than all of the Warrants, the Warrant Agent shall select the Warrants to be accelerated by lot, pro rata or in such other manner as it deems, in its discretion, to be fair and appropriate.

(d) Notice of an acceleration specifying the Acceleration Date shall be sent by mail first class, postage prepaid, to each registered holder of a Warrant Certificate representing a Warrant accelerated at such holder’s address appearing on the books of the Warrant Agent not more than sixty days nor less than thirty days before the Acceleration Date. Such notice of an acceleration also shall be given no more than twenty days, and no less than ten days, prior to the mailing of notice to registered holders of Warrants pursuant to this Section 3.6, by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the City of New York.

 

7


(e) Any Warrant accelerated may be exercised until [                ] p.m., [                ] time, on the business day next preceding the Acceleration Date. The Warrant Price shall be payable as provided in Section 2.]

ARTICLE 4

EXCHANGE AND TRANSFER OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

4.1 Exchange And Transfer Of Warrant Certificates. [If Other Securities with Warrants which are immediately detachable—Upon] [If Other Securities with Warrants which are not immediately detachable—Prior to the Detachable Date, a Warrant Certificate may be exchanged or transferred only together with the Other Security to which the Warrant Certificate was initially attached, and only for the purpose of effecting or in conjunction with an exchange or transfer of such Other Security. Prior to any Detachable Date, each transfer of the Other Security shall operate also to transfer the related Warrant Certificates. After the Detachable Date, upon] surrender at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent, Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants may be exchanged for Warrant Certificates in other denominations evidencing such Warrants or the transfer thereof may be registered in whole or in part; provided that such other Warrant Certificates evidence Warrants for the same aggregate number of Warrant Securities as the Warrant Certificates so surrendered. The Warrant Agent shall keep, at its corporate trust office, books in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it shall register Warrant Certificates and exchanges and transfers of outstanding Warrant Certificates, upon surrender of the Warrant Certificates to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office for exchange or registration of transfer, properly endorsed or accompanied by appropriate instruments of registration of transfer and written instructions for transfer, all in form satisfactory to the Company and the Warrant Agent. No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Warrant Certificates, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any such exchange or registration of transfer. Whenever any Warrant Certificates are so surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver to the person or persons entitled thereto a Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates duly authorized and executed by the Company, as so requested. The Warrant Agent shall not be required to effect any exchange or registration of transfer which will result in the issuance of a Warrant Certificate evidencing a Warrant for a fraction of a Warrant Security or a number of Warrants for a whole number of Warrant Securities and a fraction of a Warrant Security. All Warrant Certificates issued upon any exchange or registration of transfer of Warrant Certificates shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same obligations and entitled to the same benefits under this Agreement as the Warrant Certificate surrendered for such exchange or registration of transfer.

4.2 Treatment Of Holders Of Warrant Certificates. [If Other Securities and Warrants are not immediately detachable—Prior to the Detachable Date, the Company, the Warrant Agent and all other persons may treat the owner of the Other Security as the owner of the Warrant Certificates initially attached thereto for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights represented by the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificates, any notice to the contrary notwithstanding. After the Detachable Date and prior to due presentment of a Warrant Certificate for registration of transfer, the] [The] Company, the Warrant Agent and all other persons may treat the registered holder of a Warrant Certificate as the absolute owner thereof for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights represented by the Warrants evidenced thereby, any notice to the contrary notwithstanding.

4.3 Cancellation Of Warrant Certificates. Any Warrant Certificate surrendered for exchange, registration of transfer or exercise of the Warrants evidenced thereby shall, if surrendered to the Company, be delivered to the Warrant Agent and all Warrant Certificates surrendered or so delivered to the Warrant Agent shall be promptly canceled by the Warrant Agent and shall not be reissued and, except as expressly permitted by this Agreement, no Warrant Certificate shall be issued hereunder in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof.

The Warrant Agent shall deliver to the Company from time to time or otherwise dispose of canceled Warrant Certificates in a manner satisfactory to the Company.

 

8


ARTICLE 5

CONCERNING THE WARRANT AGENT

5.1 Warrant Agent. The Company hereby appoints                  as Warrant Agent of the Company in respect of the Warrants and the Warrant Certificates upon the terms and subject to the conditions herein set forth, and                  hereby accepts such appointment. The Warrant Agent shall have the powers and authority granted to and conferred upon it in the Warrant Certificates and hereby and such further powers and authority to act on behalf of the Company as the Company may hereafter grant to or confer upon it. All of the terms and provisions with respect to such powers and authority contained in the Warrant Certificates are subject to and governed by the terms and provisions hereof.

5.2 Conditions Of Warrant Agent’s Obligations. The Warrant Agent accepts its obligations herein set forth upon the terms and conditions hereof, including the following to all of which the Company agrees and to all of which the rights hereunder of the holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates shall be subject:

(a) Compensation And Indemnification. The Company agrees promptly to pay the Warrant Agent the compensation to be agreed upon with the Company for all services rendered by the Warrant Agent and to reimburse the Warrant Agent for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses (including reasonable counsel fees) incurred without negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct by the Warrant Agent in connection with the services rendered hereunder by the Warrant Agent. The Company also agrees to indemnify the Warrant Agent for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct on the part of the Warrant Agent, arising out of or in connection with its acting as Warrant Agent hereunder, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending against any claim of such liability.

(b) Agent For The Company. In acting under this Warrant Agreement and in connection with the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent is acting solely as agent of the Company and does not assume any obligations or relationship of agency or trust for or with any of the holders of Warrant Certificates or beneficial owners of Warrants.

(c) Counsel. The Warrant Agent may consult with counsel satisfactory to it, which may include counsel for the Company, and the written advice of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice of such counsel.

(d) Documents. The Warrant Agent shall be protected and shall incur no liability for or in respect of any action taken or omitted by it in reliance upon any Warrant Certificate, notice, direction, consent, certificate, affidavit, statement or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been presented or signed by the proper parties.

(e) Certain Transactions. The Warrant Agent, and its officers, directors and employees, may become the owner of, or acquire any interest in, Warrants, with the same rights that it or they would have if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder, and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, it or they may engage or be interested in any financial or other transaction with the Company and may act on, or as depositary, trustee or agent for, any committee or body of holders of Warrant Securities or other obligations of the Company as freely as if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder. Nothing in this Warrant Agreement shall be deemed to prevent the Warrant Agent from acting as trustee under any indenture to which the Company is a party.

(f) No Liability For Interest. Unless otherwise agreed with the Company, the Warrant Agent shall have no liability for interest on any monies at any time received by it pursuant to any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrant Certificates.

(g) No Liability For Invalidity. The Warrant Agent shall have no liability with respect to any invalidity of this Agreement or any of the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon).

(h) No Responsibility For Representations. The Warrant Agent shall not be responsible for any of the recitals or representations herein or in the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon), all of which are made solely by the Company.

 

9


(i) No Implied Obligations. The Warrant Agent shall be obligated to perform only such duties as are herein and in the Warrant Certificates specifically set forth and no implied duties or obligations shall be read into this Agreement or the Warrant Certificates against the Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent shall not be under any obligation to take any action hereunder which may tend to involve it in any expense or liability, the payment of which within a reasonable time is not, in its reasonable opinion, assured to it. The Warrant Agent shall not be accountable or under any duty or responsibility for the use by the Company of any of the Warrant Certificates authenticated by the Warrant Agent and delivered by it to the Company pursuant to this Agreement or for the application by the Company of the proceeds of the Warrant Certificates. The Warrant Agent shall have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by the Company in the performance of its covenants or agreements contained herein or in the Warrant Certificates or in the case of the receipt of any written demand from a holder of a Warrant Certificate with respect to such default, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any duty or responsibility to initiate or attempt to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise or, except as provided in Section 6.2 hereof, to make any demand upon the Company.

5.3 Resignation, Removal And Appointment Of Successors.

(a) The Company agrees, for the benefit of the holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates, that there shall at all times be a Warrant Agent hereunder until all the Warrants have been exercised or are no longer exercisable.

(b) The Warrant Agent may at any time resign as agent by giving written notice to the Company of such intention on its part, specifying the date on which its desired resignation shall become effective; provided that such date shall not be less than three months after the date on which such notice is given unless the Company otherwise agrees. The Warrant Agent hereunder may be removed at any time by the filing with it of an instrument in writing signed by or on behalf of the Company and specifying such removal and the intended date when it shall become effective. Such resignation or removal shall take effect upon the appointment by the Company, as hereinafter provided, of a successor Warrant Agent (which shall be a bank or trust company authorized under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization to exercise corporate trust powers) and the acceptance of such appointment by such successor Warrant Agent. The obligation of the Company under Section 5.2(a) shall continue to the extent set forth therein notwithstanding the resignation or removal of the Warrant Agent.

(c) In case at any time the Warrant Agent shall resign, or shall be removed, or shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or shall commence a voluntary case under the Federal bankruptcy laws, as now or hereafter constituted, or under any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or similar law or shall consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, custodian, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or other similar official) of the Warrant Agent or its property or affairs, or shall make an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or shall admit in writing its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or shall take corporate action in furtherance of any such action, or a decree or order for relief by a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall have been entered in respect of the Warrant Agent in an involuntary case under the Federal bankruptcy laws, as now or hereafter constituted, or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or similar law, or a decree or order by a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall have been entered for the appointment of a receiver, custodian, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Warrant Agent or of its property or affairs, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Warrant Agent or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation, winding up or liquidation, a successor Warrant Agent, qualified as aforesaid, shall be appointed by the Company by an instrument in writing, filed with the successor Warrant Agent. Upon the appointment as aforesaid of a successor Warrant Agent and acceptance by the successor Warrant Agent of such appointment, the Warrant Agent shall cease to be Warrant Agent hereunder.

(d) Any successor Warrant Agent appointed hereunder shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to its predecessor and to the Company an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon such successor Warrant Agent, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the authority, rights, powers, trusts, immunities, duties and obligations of such predecessor with like effect as if originally named as Warrant Agent hereunder, and such predecessor, upon payment of its charges and disbursements then unpaid, shall thereupon become obligated to transfer, deliver and pay over, and such successor Warrant Agent shall be entitled to receive, all monies, securities and other property on deposit with or held by such predecessor, as Warrant Agent hereunder.

 

10


(e) Any corporation into which the Warrant Agent hereunder may be merged or converted or any corporation with which the Warrant Agent may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Warrant Agent shall be a party, or any corporation to which the Warrant Agent shall sell or otherwise transfer all or substantially all the assets and business of the Warrant Agent, provided that it shall be qualified as aforesaid, shall be the successor Warrant Agent under this Agreement without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto.

ARTICLE 6

MISCELLANEOUS

6.1 Amendment. This Agreement may be amended by the parties hereto, without the consent of the holder of any Warrant Certificate, for the purpose of curing any ambiguity, or of curing, correcting or supplementing any defective provision contained herein, or making any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Agreement as the Company and the Warrant Agent may deem necessary or desirable; provided that such action shall not materially adversely affect the interests of the holders of the Warrant Certificates.

6.2 Notices And Demands To The Company And Warrant Agent. If the Warrant Agent shall receive any notice or demand addressed to the Company by the holder of a Warrant Certificate pursuant to the provisions of the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent shall promptly forward such notice or demand to the Company.

6.3 Addresses. Any communication from the Company to the Warrant Agent with respect to this Agreement shall be addressed to                 , Attention:                  and any communication from the Warrant Agent to the Company with respect to this Agreement shall be addressed to Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., 1601 Trapelo Road, Suite 286, Waltham, MA 02451, Attention: Chief Financial Officer (or such other address as shall be specified in writing by the Warrant Agent or by the Company).

6.4 Governing Law. This Agreement and each Warrant Certificate issued hereunder, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to this Agreement or any Warrant Certificate, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

6.5 Delivery Of Prospectus. The Company shall furnish to the Warrant Agent sufficient copies of a prospectus meeting the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, relating to the Warrant Securities deliverable upon exercise of the Warrants (the “Prospectus”), and the Warrant Agent agrees that upon the exercise of any Warrant, the Warrant Agent will deliver to the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant, prior to or concurrently with the delivery of the Warrant Securities issued upon such exercise, a Prospectus.

The Warrant Agent shall not, by reason of any such delivery, assume any responsibility for the accuracy or adequacy of such Prospectus.

6.6 Obtaining Of Governmental Approvals. The Company will from time to time take all action which may be necessary to obtain and keep effective any and all permits, consents and approvals of governmental agencies and authorities and securities act filings under United States Federal and state laws (including without limitation a registration statement in respect of the Warrants and Warrant Securities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended), which may be or become requisite in connection with the issuance, sale, transfer, and delivery of the Warrant Securities issued upon exercise of the Warrants, the issuance, sale, transfer and delivery of the Warrants or upon the expiration of the period during which the Warrants are exercisable.

6.7 Persons Having Rights Under Warrant Agreement. Nothing in this Agreement shall give to any person other than the Company, the Warrant Agent and the holders of the Warrant Certificates any right, remedy or claim under or by reason of this Agreement.

 

11


6.8 Headings. The descriptive headings of the several Articles and Sections of this Agreement are inserted for convenience only and shall not control or affect the meaning or construction of any of the provisions hereof.

6.9 Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which as so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

6.10 Inspection Of Agreement. A copy of this Agreement shall be available at all reasonable times at the principal corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent for inspection by the holder of any Warrant Certificate. The Warrant Agent may require such holder to submit his Warrant Certificate for inspection by it.

 

12


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed, all as of the day and year first above written.

 

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

[WARRANT AGENT], as Warrant Agent
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

[SIGNATURE PAGE TO COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT]

 

13


EXHIBIT A

FORM OF WARRANT CERTIFICATE

[FACE OF WARRANT CERTIFICATE]

 

[[Form if Warrants are attached to Other Securities and are not immediately detachable.]    [Prior to , this Warrant Certificate cannot be transferred or exchanged unless attached to a [Title of Other Securities].]
[Form of Legend if Warrants are not immediately exercisable.]    [Prior to , Warrants evidenced by this Warrant Certificate cannot be exercised.]

EXERCISABLE ONLY IF COUNTERSIGNED BY THE WARRANT AGENT AS PROVIDED HEREIN

VOID AFTER [        ] P.M., [        ] TIME, ON             ,

 

14


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

WARRANT CERTIFICATE REPRESENTING

WARRANTS TO PURCHASE

COMMON STOCK, PAR VALUE $0.0001 PER SHARE

 

No.                

   Warrants

This certifies that                  or registered assigns is the registered owner of the above indicated number of Warrants, each Warrant entitling such owner [if Warrants are attached to Other Securities and are not immediately detachable—, subject to the registered owner qualifying as a “Holder” of this Warrant Certificate, as hereinafter defined),] to purchase, at any time [after [                ] p.m., [                ] time, [on                  and] on or before [                ] p.m., [                ] time, on                 ,                  shares of Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), of Minerva Neurosciences, Inc. (the “Company”) on the following basis: during the period from                 , through and including                 , the exercise price per Warrant Security will be $                , subject to adjustment as provided in the Warrant Agreement (as hereinafter defined) (the “Warrant Price”). The Holder may exercise the Warrants evidenced hereby by providing certain information set forth on the back hereof and by paying in full, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds], the Warrant Price for each Warrant Security with respect to which this Warrant is exercised to the Warrant Agent (as hereinafter defined) and by surrendering this Warrant Certificate, with the purchase form on the back hereof duly executed, at the corporate trust office of [name of Warrant Agent], or its successor as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”), which is, on the date hereof, at the address specified on the reverse hereof, and upon compliance with and subject to the conditions set forth herein and in the Warrant Agreement (as hereinafter defined).

The term “Holder” as used herein shall mean [if Warrants are attached to Other Securities and are not immediately detachable—prior to                 ,                  (the “Detachable Date”), the registered owner of the Company’s [title of Other Securities] to which this Warrant Certificate was initially attached, and after such Detachable Date,] the person in whose name at the time this Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose pursuant to Section 4 of the Warrant Agreement.

The Warrants evidenced by this Warrant Certificate may be exercised to purchase a whole number of Warrant Securities in registered form. Upon any exercise of fewer than all of the Warrants evidenced by this Warrant Certificate, there shall be issued to the Holder hereof a new Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised.

This Warrant Certificate is issued under and in accordance with the Warrant Agreement dated as of                 ,                  (the “Warrant Agreement”), between the Company and the Warrant Agent and is subject to the terms and provisions contained in the Warrant Agreement, to all of which terms and provisions the Holder of this Warrant Certificate consents by acceptance hereof. Copies of the Warrant Agreement are on file at the above-mentioned office of the Warrant Agent.

[If Warrants are attached to Other Securities and are not immediately detachable—Prior to the Detachable Date, this Warrant Certificate may be exchanged or transferred only together with the [Title of Other Securities] (the “Other Securities”) to which this Warrant Certificate was initially attached, and only for the purpose of effecting or in conjunction with, an exchange or transfer of such Other Security. Additionally, on or prior to the Detachable Date, each transfer of such Other Security on the register of the Other Securities shall operate also to transfer this Warrant Certificate. After such date, transfer of this] [If Warrants are attached to Other Securities and are immediately detachable—Transfer of this] Warrant Certificate may be registered when this Warrant Certificate is surrendered at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent by the registered owner or such owner’s assigns, in the manner and subject to the limitations provided in the Warrant Agreement.

[If Other Securities with Warrants which are not immediately detachable—Except as provided in the immediately preceding paragraph, after] [If Other Securities with Warrants which are immediately detachable or Warrants alone—After] countersignature by the Warrant Agent and prior to the expiration of this Warrant Certificate, this Warrant Certificate may be exchanged at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent for Warrant Certificates representing Warrants for the same aggregate number of Warrant Securities.

 

15


This Warrant Certificate shall not entitle the Holder hereof to any of the rights of a holder of the Warrant Securities, including, without limitation, the right to receive payments of dividends or distributions, if any, on the Warrant Securities (except to the extent set forth in the Warrant Agreement) or to exercise any voting rights.

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Warrant Certificate set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

This Warrant Certificate shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose until countersigned by the Warrant Agent.

 

16


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this Warrant to be executed in its name and on its behalf by the facsimile signatures of its duly authorized officers.

Dated:                                                                              

 

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.
By:    
Name:    
Title:    
  Countersigned:
[WARRANT AGENT], as Warrant Agent
By:    
Name:    
Title:    

 

17


[REVERSE OF WARRANT CERTIFICATE]

(Instructions for Exercise of Warrant)

To exercise any Warrants evidenced hereby for Warrant Securities (as hereinafter defined), the Holder must pay, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds], the Warrant Price in full for Warrants exercised, to [Warrant Agent] [address of Warrant Agent], Attn:                 , which payment must specify the name of the Holder and the number of Warrants exercised by such Holder. In addition, the Holder must complete the information required below and present this Warrant Certificate in person or by mail (certified or registered mail is recommended) to the Warrant Agent at the appropriate address set forth above. This Warrant Certificate, completed and duly executed, must be received by the Warrant Agent within five business days of the payment.

(To be executed upon exercise of Warrants)

The undersigned hereby irrevocably elects to exercise                  Warrants, evidenced by this Warrant Certificate, to purchase                  shares of the Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), of Minerva Neurosciences, Inc. and represents that he has tendered payment for such Warrant Securities, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds], to the order of Minerva Neurosciences, Inc., c/o [insert name and address of Warrant Agent], in the amount of $                 in accordance with the terms hereof. The undersigned requests that said Warrant Securities be in fully registered form in the authorized denominations, registered in such names and delivered all as specified in accordance with the instructions set forth below.

If the number of Warrants exercised is less than all of the Warrants evidenced hereby, the undersigned requests that a new Warrant Certificate evidencing the Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised be issued and delivered to the undersigned unless otherwise specified in the instructions below.

 

Dated                                                                    Name                                                         
   Please Print

Address:

  

 

  

(Insert Social Security or Other Identifying Number of Holder)

Signature Guaranteed                                                                                                               

  
   Signature   

(Signature must conform in all respects to name of holder as specified on the face of this Warrant Certificate and must bear a signature guarantee by a FINRA member firm).

This Warrant may be exercised at the following addresses:

By hand at

By mail at

[Instructions as to form and delivery of Warrant Securities and, if applicable, Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised—complete as appropriate.]

 

18


ASSIGNMENT

[Form of assignment to be executed if Warrant Holder desires to transfer Warrant]

FOR VALUE RECEIVED,                  hereby sells, assigns and transfers unto:

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

(Please print name and address including zip code)    Please print Social Security or other identifying number

the right represented by the within Warrant to purchase                  shares of [Title of Warrant Securities] of Minerva Neurosciences, Inc. to which the within Warrant relates and appoints                  attorney to transfer such right on the books of the Warrant Agent with full power of substitution in the premises.

 

Dated                                                                                                  

  

 

   Signature

(Signature must conform in all respects to name of holder as specified on the face of the Warrant)

 

Signature Guaranteed

 

 

 

 

19

EX-4.9

EXHIBIT 4.9

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

and

            , AS WARRANT AGENT

FORM OF PREFERRED STOCK

WARRANT AGREEMENT

DATED AS OF [    ], 20    


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

FORM OF PREFERRED STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT

PREFERRED STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”), dated as of                  between MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and                 , a [corporation] [national banking association] organized and existing under the laws of                  and having a corporate trust office in                 , as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”).

WHEREAS, the Company proposes to sell [if Warrants are sold with other securities—[title of such other securities being offered] (the “Other Securities”) with] warrant certificates evidencing one or more warrants (the “Warrants” or, individually, a “Warrant”) representing the right to purchase [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] (the “Warrant Securities”), such warrant certificates and other warrant certificates issued pursuant to this Agreement being herein called the “Warrant Certificates”; and

WHEREAS, the Company desires the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrant Certificates, and in this Agreement wishes to set forth, among other things, the form and provisions of the Warrant Certificates and the terms and conditions on which they may be issued, registered, transferred, exchanged, exercised and replaced.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of the mutual agreements herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows:

ARTICLE 1

ISSUANCE OF WARRANTS AND EXECUTION AND DELIVERY OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

1.1 Issuance of Warrants. [If Warrants alone—Upon issuance, each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] [If Other Securities and Warrants — Warrant Certificates shall be [initially] issued in connection with the issuance of the Other Securities [but shall be separately transferable on and after                  (the “Detachable Date”)] [and shall not be separately transferable] and each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] Each Warrant evidenced thereby shall represent the right, subject to the provisions contained herein and therein, to purchase one Warrant Security. [If Other Securities and Warrants—Warrant Certificates shall be initially issued in units with the Other Securities and each Warrant Certificate included in such a unit shall evidence                  Warrants for each [$                 principal amount] [                 shares] of Other Securities included in such unit.]

1.2 Execution And Delivery Of Warrant Certificates. Each Warrant Certificate, whenever issued, shall be in registered form substantially in the form set forth in Exhibit A hereto, shall be dated the date of its countersignature by the Warrant Agent and may have such letters, numbers, or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the officers of the Company executing the same may approve (execution thereof to be conclusive evidence of such approval) and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which the Warrants may be listed, or to conform to usage. The Warrant Certificates shall be signed on behalf of the Company by any of its present or future chief executive officers, presidents, senior vice presidents, vice presidents, chief financial officers, chief legal officers, treasurers, assistant treasurers, controllers, assistant controllers, secretaries or assistant secretaries under its corporate seal reproduced thereon. Such signatures may be manual or facsimile signatures of such authorized officers and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates.

No Warrant Certificate shall be valid for any purpose, and no Warrant evidenced thereby shall be exercisable, until such Warrant Certificate has been countersigned by the manual signature of the Warrant Agent. Such signature by the Warrant Agent upon any Warrant Certificate executed by the Company shall be conclusive evidence that the Warrant Certificate so countersigned has been duly issued hereunder.

 

2


In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of the Warrant Certificates either manually or by facsimile signature shall cease to be such officer before the Warrant Certificates so signed shall have been countersigned and delivered by the Warrant Agent, such Warrant Certificates may be countersigned and delivered notwithstanding that the person who signed Warrant Certificates ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant Certificate may be signed on behalf of the Company by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant Certificate, shall be the proper officers of the Company, although at the date of the execution of this Agreement any such person was not such officer.

The term “holder” or “holder of a Warrant Certificate” as used herein shall mean any person in whose name at the time any Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose [If Other Securities and Warrants are not immediately detachable—or upon the registration of the Other Securities prior to the Detachable Date. Prior to the Detachable Date, the Company will, or will cause the registrar of the Other Securities to, make available at all times to the Warrant Agent such information as to holders of the Other Securities as may be necessary to keep the Warrant Agent’s records up to date].

1.3 Issuance Of Warrant Certificates. Warrant Certificates evidencing the right to purchase Warrant Securities may be executed by the Company and delivered to the Warrant Agent upon the execution of this Warrant Agreement or from time to time thereafter. The Warrant Agent shall, upon receipt of Warrant Certificates duly executed on behalf of the Company, countersign such Warrant Certificates and shall deliver such Warrant Certificates to or upon the order of the Company.

ARTICLE 2

WARRANT PRICE, DURATION AND EXERCISE OF WARRANTS

2.1 Warrant Price. During the period specified in Section 2.2, each Warrant shall, subject to the terms of this Warrant Agreement and the applicable Warrant Certificate, entitle the holder thereof to purchase the number of Warrant Securities specified in the applicable Warrant Certificate at an exercise price of $                 per Warrant Security, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, as hereinafter provided. Such purchase price per Warrant Security is referred to in this Agreement as the “Warrant Price.”

2.2 Duration Of Warrants. Each Warrant may be exercised in whole or in part at any time, as specified herein, on or after [the date thereof] [    ] and at or before [    ] p.m., [    ] time, on      or such later date as the Company may designate by notice to the Warrant Agent and the holders of Warrant Certificates mailed to their addresses as set forth in the record books of the Warrant Agent (the “Expiration Date”). Each Warrant not exercised at or before [    ] p.m., [    ] time, on the Expiration Date shall become void, and all rights of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant under this Agreement shall cease.

2.3 Exercise Of Warrants.

(a) During the period specified in Section 2.2, the Warrants may be exercised to purchase a whole number of Warrant Securities in registered form by providing certain information as set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate and by paying in full, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds] the Warrant Price for each Warrant Security with respect to which a Warrant is being exercised to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office, provided that such exercise is subject to receipt within five business days of such payment by the Warrant Agent of the Warrant Certificate with the form of election to purchase Warrant Securities set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate properly completed and duly executed. The date on which payment in full of the Warrant Price is received by the Warrant Agent shall, subject to receipt of the Warrant Certificate as aforesaid, be deemed to be the date on which the Warrant is exercised; provided, however, that if, at the date of receipt of such Warrant Certificates and payment in full of the Warrant Price, the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be closed,

 

3


no such receipt of such Warrant Certificates and no such payment of such Warrant Price shall be effective to constitute the person so designated to be named as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities on such date, but shall be effective to constitute such person as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities for all purposes at the opening of business on the next succeeding day on which the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be opened, and the certificates for the Warrant Securities in respect of which such Warrants are then exercised shall be issuable as of the date on such next succeeding day on which the transfer books shall next be opened, and until such date the Company shall be under no duty to deliver any certificate for such Warrant Securities. The Warrant Agent shall deposit all funds received by it in payment of the Warrant Price in an account of the Company maintained with it and shall advise the Company by telephone at the end of each day on which a payment for the exercise of Warrants is received of the amount so deposited to its account. The Warrant Agent shall promptly confirm such telephone advice to the Company in writing.

(b) The Warrant Agent shall, from time to time, as promptly as practicable, advise the Company of (i) the number of Warrant Securities with respect to which Warrants were exercised, (ii) the instructions of each holder of the Warrant Certificates evidencing such Warrants with respect to delivery of the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled upon such exercise, (iii) delivery of Warrant Certificates evidencing the balance, if any, of the Warrants for the remaining Warrant Securities after such exercise, and (iv) such other information as the Company shall reasonably require.

(c) As soon as practicable after the exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall issue to or upon the order of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled, in fully registered form, registered in such name or names as may be directed by such holder. If fewer than all of the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificate are exercised, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, a new Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised.

(d) The Company shall not be required to pay any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge required to be paid in connection with any transfer involved in the issue of the Warrant Securities, and in the event that any such transfer is involved, the Company shall not be required to issue or deliver any Warrant Security until such tax or other charge shall have been paid or it has been established to the Company’s satisfaction that no such tax or other charge is due.

(e) Prior to the issuance of any Warrants there shall have been reserved, and the Company shall at all times through the Expiration Date keep reserved, out of its authorized but unissued Warrant Securities, a number of shares sufficient to provide for the exercise of the Warrants.

ARTICLE 3

OTHER PROVISIONS RELATING TO RIGHTS OF HOLDERS OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

3.1 No Rights As Warrant Securityholder Conferred By Warrants or Warrant Certificates. No Warrant Certificate or Warrant evidenced thereby shall entitle the holder thereof to any of the rights of a holder of Warrant Securities, including, without limitation, the right to receive the payment of dividends or distributions, if any, on the Warrant Securities or to exercise any voting rights, except to the extent expressly set forth in this Agreement or the applicable Warrant Certificate.

3.2 Lost, Stolen, Mutilated or Destroyed Warrant Certificates. Upon receipt by the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it and the Company of the ownership of and the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of any Warrant Certificate and/or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Warrant Agent and the Company and, in the case of mutilation, upon surrender of the mutilated Warrant Certificate to the Warrant Agent for cancellation, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Warrant Agent that such Warrant Certificate has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, in exchange for or in lieu of the lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated Warrant Certificate, a new Warrant Certificate of the same tenor and evidencing Warrants for a like number of Warrant Securities. Upon the issuance of any new Warrant Certificate under this Section 3.2, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in

 

4


relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Warrant Agent) in connection therewith. Every substitute Warrant Certificate executed and delivered pursuant to this Section 3.2 in lieu of any lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall represent an additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to the benefits of this Agreement equally and proportionately with any and all other Warrant Certificates duly executed and delivered hereunder. The provisions of this Section 3.2 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement of mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificates.

3.3 Holder of Warrant Certificate May Enforce Rights. Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Agreement, any holder of a Warrant Certificate, without the consent of the Warrant Agent, the holder of any Warrant Securities or the holder of any other Warrant Certificate, may, in such holder’s own behalf and for such holder’s own benefit, enforce, and may institute and maintain any suit, action or proceeding against the Company suitable to enforce, or otherwise in respect of, such holder’s right to exercise the Warrants evidenced by such holder’s Warrant Certificate in the manner provided in such holder’s Warrant Certificate and in this Agreement.

3.4 Adjustments.

(a) In case the Company shall at any time subdivide its outstanding shares of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] into a greater number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such subdivision shall be proportionately reduced and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately increased. Conversely, in case the outstanding shares of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] of the Company shall be combined into a smaller number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such combination shall be proportionately increased and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately decreased.

(b) If at any time or from time to time the holders of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] (or any shares of stock or other securities at the time receivable upon the exercise of the Warrants) shall have received or become entitled to receive, without payment therefore,

(i) [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] or any shares of stock or other securities which are at any time directly or indirectly convertible into or exchangeable for [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants], or any rights or options to subscribe for, purchase or otherwise acquire any of the foregoing by way of dividend or other distribution;

(ii) any cash paid or payable otherwise than in accordance with the terms of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] or otherwise than as a cash dividend paid or payable out of the Company’s current or retained earnings;

(iii) any evidence of the Company’s indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase the Company’s indebtedness; or

(iv) [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] or additional stock or other securities or property (including cash) by way of spinoff, split-up, reclassification, combination of shares or similar corporate rearrangement (other than shares of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] issued as a stock split or adjustments in respect of which shall be covered by the terms of Section 3.4(a) above), then and in each such case, the holder of each Warrant shall, upon the exercise of the Warrant, be entitled to receive, in addition to the number of Warrant Securities receivable thereupon, and without payment of any additional consideration therefore, the amount of stock and other securities and property (including cash and indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase indebtedness) which such holder would hold on the date of such exercise had he been the holder of record of such Warrant Securities as of the date on which holders of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] received or became entitled to receive such shares or all other additional stock and other securities and property.

 

5


(c) In case of (i) any reclassification, capital reorganization, or change in the [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through the exercise of the Warrants] of the Company (other than as a result of a subdivision, combination or stock dividend provided for in Section 3.4(a) or Section 3.4(b) above), (ii) share exchange, merger or similar transaction of the Company with or into another person or entity (other than a share exchange, merger or similar transaction in which the Company is the acquiring or surviving corporation and which does not result in any change in the [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through the exercise of the Warrants] other than the issuance of additional shares of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through the exercise of the Warrants]) or (iii) the sale, exchange, lease, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company as an entirety (in any such case, a “Reorganization Event”), then, as a condition of such Reorganization Event, lawful provisions shall be made, and duly executed documents evidencing the same from the Company or its successor shall be delivered to the holders of the Warrants, so that the holders of the Warrants shall have the right at any time prior to the expiration of the Warrants to purchase, at a total price equal to that payable upon the exercise of the Warrants, the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property receivable in connection with such Reorganization Event by a holder of the same number of shares of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through the exercise of the Warrants] as were purchasable by the holders of the Warrants immediately prior to such Reorganization Event. In any such case appropriate provisions shall be made with respect to the rights and interests of the holders of the Warrants so that the provisions hereof shall thereafter be applicable with respect to any shares of stock or other securities and property deliverable upon exercise the Warrants, and appropriate adjustments shall be made to the Warrant Price payable hereunder provided the aggregate purchase price shall remain the same. In the case of any transaction described in clauses (ii) and (iii) above, the Company shall thereupon be relieved of any further obligation hereunder or under the Warrants, and the Company as the predecessor corporation may thereupon or at any time thereafter be dissolved, wound up or liquidated. Such successor or assuming entity thereupon may cause to be signed, and may issue either in its own name or in the name of the Company, any or all of the Warrants issuable hereunder which heretofore shall not have been signed by the Company, and may execute and deliver securities in its own name, in fulfillment of its obligations to deliver Warrant Securities upon exercise of the Warrants. All the Warrants so issued shall in all respects have the same legal rank and benefit under this Agreement as the Warrants theretofore or thereafter issued in accordance with the terms of this Agreement as though all of such Warrants had been issued at the date of the execution hereof. In any case of any such Reorganization Event, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Warrants thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate. The Warrant Agent may receive a written opinion of legal counsel as conclusive evidence that any such Reorganization Event complies with the provisions of this Section 3.4.

(d) The Company may, at its option, at any time until the Expiration Date, reduce the then current Warrant Price to any amount deemed appropriate by the Board of Directors of the Company for any period not exceeding twenty consecutive days (as evidenced in a resolution adopted by such Board of Directors), but only upon giving the notices required by Section 3.5 at least ten days prior to taking such action.

(e) Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, no adjustment in the Warrant Price shall be made by reason of the issuance of any securities of the Company or for any other reason whatsoever.

(f) No fractional Warrant Securities shall be issued upon the exercise of Warrants. If more than one Warrant shall be exercised at one time by the same holder, the number of full Warrant Securities which shall be issuable upon such exercise shall be computed on the basis of the aggregate number of Warrant Securities purchased pursuant to the Warrants so exercised. Instead of any fractional Warrant Security which would otherwise be issuable upon exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall pay a cash adjustment in respect of such fraction in an amount equal to the same fraction of the last sales price (or bid price if there were no sales) per Warrant Security, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Warrant Securities are listed or admitted to trading on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise or, if the Warrant Securities are not then listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board Service (the “OTC Bulletin Board”) operated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) or, if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system on such date, or if on any such date the Warrant Securities are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, an amount equal to the same fraction of the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose at the close of business on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise.

 

6


(g) Whenever the Warrant Price then in effect is adjusted as herein provided, the Company shall mail to each holder of the Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Company a statement setting forth the adjusted Warrant Price then and thereafter effective under the provisions hereof, together with the facts, in reasonable detail, upon which such adjustment is based.

(h) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, in no event shall the Warrant Price, as adjusted in accordance with the terms hereof, be less than the par value per share of [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants].

3.5 Notice to Warrantholders. In case the Company shall (a) effect any dividend or distribution described in Section 3.4(b), (b) effect any Reorganization Event, (c) make any distribution on or in respect of the [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through the exercise of the Warrants] in connection with the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Company, or (d)&n