UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

x

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2014

OR

¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission File No. 001-36517

 

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

26-0784194

(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

1601 Trapelo Road,
Waltham, MA

 

02451

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (617) 600-7373

245 First St, Suite 1800, Cambridge, MA, 02142

(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES  x    NO  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§229.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    YES  x    NO  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

¨

  

Accelerated filer

 

¨

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

x  (Do not check if smaller reporting company)

  

Smaller reporting company

 

¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    YES  ¨    NO  x

18,439,482 shares, $0.0001 par value per share, were outstanding as of November 5, 2014.

 

 

 

 


INDEX TO FORM 10-Q

 

 

 

Page

 

PART I — Financial Information

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Financial Statements:

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 (unaudited)

4

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 (unaudited)

5

 

Condensed Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 (unaudited)

6

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 (unaudited)

7

 

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

8

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

22

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

28

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

28

 

 

 

 

PART II — Other Information

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

30

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

30

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

61

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

61

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

61

Item 5.

Other Information

61

Item 6.

Exhibits

62

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

63

 

 

 

2


This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. These forward-looking statements reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. Because of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not transpire. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under Part II, Item IA, “Risk Factors and beginning on Page 9 under the heading “Risk Factors” of our prospectus dated June 30, 2014, filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 1, 2014 (the “Prospectus”).

Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Also, forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this document. You should read this document with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

 

3


PART I

MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Unaudited)

 

 

September 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

23,639,558

 

 

$

1,818,317

 

Prepaid expenses

 

583,539

 

 

 

852

 

Total current assets

 

24,223,097

 

 

 

1,819,169

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equipment, net

 

35,566

 

 

 

3,232

 

In-process research and development

 

34,200,000

 

 

 

19,000,000

 

Goodwill

 

14,869,399

 

 

 

7,918,387

 

Deferred public offering costs

 

 

 

 

433,998

 

Total assets

$

73,328,062

 

 

$

29,174,786

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$

942,228

 

 

$

522,981

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

850,424

 

 

 

815,239

 

Accrued collaborative expenses

 

1,386,493

 

 

 

 

Convertible promissory notes

 

 

 

 

58,270

 

Derivative liability

 

 

 

 

10,093

 

Total current liabilities

 

3,179,145

 

 

 

1,406,583

 

Deferred taxes

 

13,433,760

 

 

 

7,588,600

 

Total liabilities

 

16,612,905

 

 

 

8,995,183

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock; $.0001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized; none issued

or outstanding as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock; $.0001 par value; 125,000,000 shares authorized; 18,439,482 and

   6,112,738 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2014 and

   December 31, 2013, respectively

 

1,844

 

 

 

611

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

124,002,381

 

 

 

38,008,783

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(67,289,068

)

 

 

(17,829,791

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

56,715,157

 

 

 

20,179,603

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

73,328,062

 

 

$

29,174,786

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

4


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

(Unaudited)

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

$

24,737,835

 

 

$

190,663

 

 

$

39,939,958

 

 

$

544,445

 

General and administrative

 

2,413,516

 

 

 

291,809

 

 

 

7,484,556

 

 

 

588,144

 

Total expenses

 

27,151,351

 

 

 

482,472

 

 

 

47,424,514

 

 

 

1,132,589

 

Loss from operations

 

(27,151,351

)

 

 

(482,472

)

 

 

(47,424,514

)

 

 

(1,132,589

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign exchange gains (losses)

 

10,989

 

 

 

(2,887

)

 

 

14,975

 

 

 

(2,887

)

Interest (expense) income

 

(14,835

)

 

 

(2,834

)

 

 

(2,049,738

)

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(27,155,197

)

 

$

(488,193

)

 

$

(49,459,277

)

 

$

(1,135,476

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

$

(1.53

)

 

$

(0.12

)

 

$

(4.58

)

 

$

(0.29

)

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

17,752,371

 

 

 

4,091,027

 

 

 

10,798,432

 

 

 

3,858,687

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

5


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(Unaudited)

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Paid-In Capital

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Total

 

Balances at December 31, 2013

 

6,112,738

 

 

$

611

 

 

$

38,008,783

 

 

$

(17,829,791

)

 

$

20,179,603

 

Issuance of shares for business acquisition

 

1,481,583

 

 

 

148

 

 

 

16,541,686

 

 

 

 

 

 

16,541,834

 

Issuance of common stock pursuant to an initial public offering and concurrent private placements, net of issuance costs

 

9,566,557

 

 

 

956

 

 

 

51,620,030

 

 

 

 

 

 

51,620,986

 

Vesting of common shares issued

 

926,604

 

 

 

93

 

 

 

10,542,577

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,542,670

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,177,341

 

 

 

 

 

 

5,177,341

 

Conversion of debt and interest to common stock

 

352,000

 

 

 

36

 

 

 

2,111,964

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,112,000

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(49,459,277

)

 

 

(49,459,277

)

Balances at September 30, 2014

 

18,439,482

 

 

$

1,844

 

 

$

124,002,381

 

 

$

(67,289,068

)

 

$

56,715,157

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

6


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Unaudited)

 

 

Nine months Ended September 30,

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(49,459,277

)

 

$

(1,135,476

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

29,879

 

 

 

 

Amortization of debt discount recorded as interest expense

 

1,952,309

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

15,720,011

 

 

 

 

Unrealized foreign exchange gain

 

 

 

 

(2,626

)

Change in fair value of derivative

 

(10,093

)

 

 

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses

 

(539,761

)

 

 

7,125

 

Accounts payable

 

658,863

 

 

 

 

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

(682,549

)

 

 

180,919

 

Accrued collaborative expenses

 

1,386,493

 

 

 

-

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(30,944,125

)

 

 

(950,058

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash acquired in business combination

 

1,167,869

 

 

 

 

Purchases of equipment

 

(33,739

)

 

 

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

1,134,130

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from working capital loans

 

1,882,817

 

 

 

 

Repayments of working capital loans

 

(1,882,817

)

 

 

 

Proceeds from sales of common stock in initial public offering

 

31,334,702

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from sales of common stock in private placements

 

23,706,118

 

 

 

1,850,000

 

Fees paid in connection with private placements

 

(280,000

)

 

 

 

Public offering costs paid

 

(3,129,584

)

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

51,631,236

 

 

 

1,850,000

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

21,821,241

 

 

 

899,942

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning of period

 

1,818,317

 

 

 

200,314

 

End of period

$

23,639,558

 

 

$

1,100,256

 

Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock issued as consideration for business acquisition

$

16,541,834

 

 

$

 

Plus liabilities assumed:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accrued expenses and other

 

321,417

 

 

 

 

ProteoSys milestone payable

 

681,600

 

 

 

 

Deferred tax liability

 

5,970,560

 

 

 

 

Less assets acquired:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses

 

42,926

 

 

 

 

Equipment

 

28,204

 

 

 

 

In-process research and development

 

15,200,000

 

 

 

 

Goodwill

 

7,076,412

 

 

 

 

Cash acquired in business merger

$

1,167,869

 

 

$

 

Incurred but unpaid public offering costs

$

10,250

 

 

$

 

Conversion of debt and interest to common stock

$

2,112,000

 

 

$

 

 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

 

7


MINERVA NEUROSCIENCES, INC.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

As of September 30, 2014 and for the

Nine Months Ended September 30, 2014 and 2013

(unaudited)

 

NOTE 1 — NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND LIQUIDITY

Nature of Operations

Minerva Neurosciences, Inc. (“Minerva” or the “Company”), formerly known as Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals Inc. (“Cyrenaic”) was incorporated on April 23, 2007. The Company is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of an experimental drug for the treatment of schizophrenia (discussed further in Note 6 — License Agreement). On November 12, 2013, Sonkei Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Sonkei”), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of an experimental drug for the treatment of depression and an affiliated company through certain common ownership, was merged into Cyrenaic with Cyrenaic being the surviving company. Subsequent to the merger, Cyrenaic changed its name to Minerva Neurosciences, Inc.

On February 11, 2014, the Company acquired Mind-NRG (discussed further in Note 3 — Business Combinations).  Mind-NRG is a Swiss development stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of an experimental drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The Company acquired 100% of the share capital of Mind-NRG largely to obtain the intellectual property estate which underpins Mind-NRG’s lead product candidate, renamed MIN-301.

On February 12, 2014, subject to the completion of an initial public offering (“IPO”), the Company entered into a co-development and license agreement (discussed further in Note 8 — Co-Development and License Agreement) pursuant to which the licensor granted the Company an exclusive license, in certain territories, under certain patent and patent applications to sell products containing any orexin 2 compound, controlled by the licensor and claimed in a licensor patent right, as an active ingredient, or MIN-202, for any use in humans. The license became effective on July 7, 2014 at the closing of the IPO and the payment of the $22.0 million license fee was made at that date.

Going Concern

The Company has limited capital resources and has incurred recurring operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. As of September 30, 2014, the Company has an accumulated deficit of approximately $67.3 million. Management expects to continue to incur operating losses and negative cash flows from operations. The Company has financed its business to date from proceeds from the sale of common stock, loans and convertible promissory notes. On July 7, 2014, the Company completed an IPO and received net proceeds of $28.2 million, including the over allotment. In addition, on July 7, 2014, the Company sold shares of its common stock in two private placements resulting in net proceeds to the Company of approximately $23.4 million.

The Company will need to raise additional capital in order to continue to fund operations and fully fund its clinical development programs. The Company believes that it will be able to obtain additional working capital through equity financings or other arrangements to fund operations; however, there can be no assurance that such additional financing, if available, can be obtained on terms acceptable to the Company.  If the Company is unable to obtain such additional financing, future operations would need to be scaled back or discontinued.

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared as though the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.

 

NOTE 2 — SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of presentation

The accompanying unaudited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial reporting and as required by Regulation S-X, Rule 10-01. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the accompanying unaudited financial statements contain all adjustments (consisting of items of a normal and recurring nature) necessary to present fairly the financial position as of September 30, 2014 and the results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year. When preparing financial statements in conformity with GAAP, management must make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period.

8


Actual results could differ from those estimates. The balance sheet as of December 31, 2013 was derived from the audited financial statements. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.

From its inception the Company has devoted substantially all of its efforts to business planning, engaging regulatory, manufacturing and other technical consultants, planning and executing clinical trials and raising capital.

Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the results of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Mind-NRG. Intercompany transactions have been eliminated.

Significant risks and uncertainties

The Company’s operations are subject to a number of factors that can affect its operating results and financial condition. Such factors include, but are not limited to: the results of clinical testing and trial activities of the Company’s products, the Company’s ability to obtain regulatory approval to market its products, competition from products manufactured and sold or being developed by other companies, the price of and demand for Company products, the Company’s ability to negotiate favorable licensing or other manufacturing and marketing agreements for its products, and the Company’s ability to raise capital.

The Company currently has no commercially approved products and there can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development will be successfully commercialized. Developing and commercializing a product requires significant time and capital and is subject to regulatory review and approval as well as competition from other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. The Company operates in an environment of rapid change and is dependent upon the continued services of its employees and consultants and obtaining and protecting intellectual property.

Use of estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Prior to the completion of the Company’s IPO, the Company utilized significant estimates and assumptions in determining the fair value of its common stock. The board of directors determined the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector, discounted cash flows and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an IPO of common stock or a sale of the Company. The Company utilized various valuation methodologies in accordance with the framework of the 2013 American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Technical Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, to estimate the fair value of its common stock. The methodologies included a probability-weighted expected return methodology that determined an estimated value under an IPO scenario and a sale scenario based upon an assessment of the probability of occurrence of each scenario. Each valuation methodology includes estimates and assumptions that require the Company’s judgment. These estimates include assumptions regarding future performance, including the successful completion of preclinical studies and clinical trials and the time to complete an IPO or sale. Significant changes to the key assumptions used in the valuations could result in different fair values of common stock at each valuation date.

Research and development costs

Costs incurred in connection with research and development activities are expensed as incurred. These costs include licensing fees to use certain technology in the Company’s research and development projects as well as fees paid to consultants and various entities that perform certain research and testing on behalf of the Company. We determine our expenses related to clinical studies based on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple research institutions and contract research organizations that conduct and manage clinical studies on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of patients and the completion of clinical trial milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust the accrual accordingly. The expenses for some trials may be recognized on a straight-line basis if the expected costs are expected to be incurred ratably during the period. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual arrangements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in the condensed consolidated financial statements as prepaid or accrued expenses.

9


In July 2014, the Company paid a $22.0 million license fee, which has been included as a component of research and development expense since the licensed rights were not deemed to have an alternative future use. The Company accounts for the co-development and license agreement pursuant to which the license fee was paid as a joint risk-sharing collaboration in accordance with ASC 808, Collaboration Arrangements. Costs between the Company and the licensor with respect to each party’s share of development costs that have been incurred pursuant to the joint development plan are recorded within research and development expense or general and administrative expense, as applicable, in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements due to the joint risk-sharing nature of the activities. The Company has included $1.4 million in accrued expenses as of September 30, 2014 related to this agreement.

In-process research and development (“IPR&D”) assets represent capitalized incomplete research projects that the Company acquired through business combinations. Such assets are initially measured at their acquisition date fair values. The fair value of the research projects is recorded as intangible assets on the balance sheet, rather than expensed, regardless of whether these assets have an alternative future use.

The amounts capitalized are being accounted for as indefinite-lived intangible assets, subject to impairment testing, until completion or abandonment of research and development efforts associated with the project. An IPR&D asset is considered abandoned when it ceases to be used (that is, research and development efforts associated with the asset have ceased, and there are no plans to sell or license the asset or derive defensive value from the asset). At that point, the asset is considered to be disposed of and is written off. Upon successful completion of each project, the Company will make a determination about the then remaining useful life of the intangible asset and begin amortization. The Company tests its indefinite-lived intangibles, IPR&D assets, for impairment annually on November 30 and more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. When testing indefinite-lived intangibles for impairment, the Company may assess qualitative factors for its indefinite-lived intangibles to determine whether it is more likely than not (that is, a likelihood of more than 50 percent) that the asset is impaired. Alternatively, the Company may bypass this qualitative assessment for some or all of its indefinite-lived intangibles and perform the quantitative impairment test that compares the fair value of the indefinite- lived intangible asset with the asset’s carrying amount.

Stock-based compensation

The Company recognizes compensation cost relating to share-based payment transactions in operating results using a fair-value measurement method, in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Series Codification (“ASC”) -718 Compensation-Stock Compensation. ASC-718 requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in operating results as compensation expense over the requisite service period of the awards based on fair value of the granted instruments. The Company determines the fair value of share-based awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which uses both historical and current market data to estimate fair value. This model incorporates various assumptions such as the risk-free interest rate, the expected volatility of the Company’s stock price, the stock’s expected dividend yield and the expected life of the options. The Company reduces the amount of compensation expense it recognizes for the expected amount of pre-vesting forfeitures.

Grants to non-employees are accounted for in accordance with ASC-505-50 Equity — Based Payments to Non-Employees. The fair value of the instruments awarded are remeasured until the earlier of the date at which a commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instrument is reached or the date at which the counterparty’s performance is complete. The Company determines the fair value of share-based awards granted to non-employees using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.

Loss per share

Basic loss per share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted loss per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that shared in the earnings of the entity.

Income taxes

The Company utilizes the liability method of accounting for income taxes as required by ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax reporting bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are evaluated for realization based on a more-likely-than-not criterion in determining if a valuation allowance should be provided. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.

10


ASC Topic 740 also covers the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the consolidated financial statements. The guidance prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken, or expected to be taken, in a tax return. ASC Topic 740 provides guidance on the recognition of interest and penalties related to income taxes. There were no interest or penalties related to income taxes for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013. The Company has elected to treat interest and penalties, to the extent they arise, as a component of income taxes. Income tax years beginning in 2011 for federal and state purposes are generally subject to examination by taxing authorities, although net operating losses from all prior years are subject to examinations and adjustments for at least three years following the year in which the tax attributes are utilized.

Deferred public offering costs

Deferred public offering costs include certain legal, accounting and other costs directly attributable to the Company’s public offering of common stock. Upon completion of the Company’s IPO on July 7, 2014, these amounts were offset against the proceeds of the offering.

Business combinations

For business combinations the Company utilizes the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations. These standards require that the total cost of an acquisition be allocated to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based their respective fair values at the date of acquisition. The allocation of the purchase price is dependent upon certain valuations and other studies. Acquisition costs are expensed as incurred. The Company recognizes separately from goodwill the fair value of assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions as a part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, the Company’s estimates are subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may retroactively record adjustments to the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the fair value of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

Goodwill

The Company tests its goodwill for impairment annually, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate an impairment may have occurred, by comparing its reporting unit’s carrying value to its implied fair value. Impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in the performance of the acquired business, adverse market conditions, adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations and a variety of other circumstances. If the Company determines that an impairment has occurred, it is required to record a write-down of the carrying value and charge the impairment as an operating expense in the period the determination is made. In evaluating the recoverability of the carrying value of goodwill the Company must make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors to determine the fair value of the acquired assets. Changes in strategy or market conditions could significantly impact those judgments in the future and require an adjustment to the recorded balances. The Company tests its goodwill for impairment annually at November 30 and more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. There was no impairment of goodwill for the year ended December 31, 2013 and the Company believes there was no impairment for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014.

Convertible promissory notes

The Company had issued 8% convertible promissory notes consisting of (i) $1.3 million face value convertible promissory notes and(ii) €518,519 face value convertible promissory notes. The Euro denominated notes were acquired in conjunction with the merger with Sonkei (discussed further in Note 3 — Business Combinations), and recorded at their fair value of approximately $0.7 million on the date of the merger.

In conjunction with the IPO, the Company’s 8% convertible promissory notes in the face amount of $1.3 million and €518,519 including $0.1 million in accrued interest, were converted on July 7, 2014 at the IPO price of $6.00 per share into 352,000 shares of the Company’s common stock. There were no debt instruments outstanding on September 30, 2014.

Discount Purchase Option

The Company’s 8% convertible promissory notes contain an embedded derivative related to the conversion option containing a discount purchase feature in a qualified financing, as defined in such convertible promissory notes. The derivative was carried at fair value and was classified as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy due to the use of significant unobservable inputs. As of December 31, 2013, the fair value of the derivative liability was determined to be $10,093 using a probability-weighted valuation model applying the

11


following assumptions: (i) discount rate of 8.0%, (ii) remaining term of approximately 6 months and (iii) the probabilities of conversion under various circumstances as at the date of measurement. The fair value of the derivative liability was remeasured at the July 7, 2014 conversion date and the fair value of the liability was determined to be $0. The $10,093 decrease in the fair value of the derivative liability was included as a component of interest for the nine months ended September 30, 2014. No amounts were charged to interest during the three months ended September 30, 2014.

$3.50/€3.50 Conversion Option

The Company’s 8% convertible promissory notes contained an embedded derivative related to the beneficial conversion feature of the notes. The initial fair value of the derivative liability at the date of issuance in November 2013 was determined by measuring the difference between the conversion price and the fair value of common stock at the commitment date. The Company recorded a debt discount for the fair value of the derivative, which was limited to the proceeds received of approximately $2.0 million, with an offsetting increase to additional paid-in capital. The beneficial conversion charge was included in the balance sheet at December 31, 2013 as a discount to the related convertible promissory notes. The discount was accreted as non-cash interest expense over the term of the debt using the effective interest method. The debt was converted into common stock in conjunction with the Company’s IPO on July 7, 2014 and the Company recognized approximately $0 and $2.0 million in non-cash interest expense within interest expense (income), net during the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2014, respectively.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by FASB and are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. The Company believes that the impact of other recently issued but not yet adopted accounting pronouncements will not have a material impact on the financial position, results of operations, and cash flows, or do not apply to the Company’s operations.

In June 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-10, Development Stage Entities (Topic 915) which eliminates the definition of a development stage entity and removes the financial reporting distinction between development stage entities and other reporting entities under GAAP.  The Company early adopted this standard and thus has eliminated its historical inception to date information in the financial statements.

In August 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40) which provides guidance on disclosure requirements when there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The amendments in this update are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter, with early adoption permitted. The Company will evaluate this amendment but does not believe that it will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

NOTE 3 — BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

Mind-NRG

On February 11, 2014, the Company acquired Mind-NRG, a Swiss development stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of an experimental drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. This transaction was accounted for as a business combination by the Company. The purchase price consists of 1,481,583 shares of the Company’s common stock (which includes 148,160 shares held in escrow until the expiration of the holdback period, February 11, 2015) with an estimated fair value of $11.17 per share, or approximately $16.5 million. The Company acquired 100% of the share capital of Mind-NRG largely to obtain the intellectual property estate that underpins Mind-NRG’s lead product candidate, recently renamed MIN-301.

The fair value of the Company’s common stock issued was determined based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector, discounted cash flows and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an IPO or a sale of the Company. The purchase price allocation was based upon an analysis of the fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired from Mind-NRG. The final purchase price may be adjusted up to one year from the date of the merger. Identifying the fair value of the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities acquired required the use of estimates by management, and were based upon currently available data, as noted below.

·

The fair value of current assets and liabilities approximated their book value.

·

The Company measured the value of the acquired IPR&D using the income approach — multi period excess earnings method and assembled workforce using the cost approach (for contributory asset charge calculations). The multi-period excess earning method measures the present value of the future earnings expected to be generated during the remaining lives of the subject assets.

·

The Company recorded a deferred tax liability for the difference in the book and tax basis of the IPR&D, multiplied by the effective income tax rate.

12


The establishment of the fair value of the consideration for an acquisition, and the allocation to identifiable tangible and intangible assets and liabilities requires the extensive use of accounting estimates and management judgment. The fair values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are from estimates and assumptions based on data currently available.

The Company allocated the excess of purchase price over the identifiable intangible and net tangible assets to goodwill. The goodwill recorded recognizes the value of the overall development program, both the current pre-clinical development program in process and the future clinical trial development strategy. Such goodwill is not deductible for tax purposes. The aggregate consideration of $16.5 million has been allocated to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on estimated fair values at the February 11, 2014 as follows:

 

Cash

$

1,167,869

 

Other assets

 

71,130

 

Goodwill

 

7,076,412

 

In-process research and development

 

15,200,000

 

Deferred tax liability

 

(5,970,560

)

Accrued expenses

 

(321,417

)

ProteoSys milestone payable

 

(681,600

)

 

$

16,541,834

 

 

IPR&D, an indefinite-lived asset, will be included as an asset on the Company’s balance sheet until such time that: (i) a marketing approval to commercially sell the drug is received from a regulatory agency, in which case it will be amortized over its expected commercial life, or (ii) such time as the IPR&D is deemed to be impaired, in which case it will be expensed. The transaction is being treated as a stock purchase for income tax purposes and accordingly, the tax bases of Mind-NRG’s assets and liabilities are not adjusted for the effect of purchase accounting. A deferred tax liability of $6.0 million has been recorded for the difference in the book and tax basis of the IPR&D, multiplied by the effective income tax. As of September 30, 2014, the Company corrected the deferred tax rate used to record a deferred tax liability at the acquisition date by recording a $0.1 million reduction to deferred tax liability with a corresponding reduction to goodwill.

 

Sonkei

On November 12, 2013, Cyrenaic was merged with Sonkei, with Cyrenaic being the survivor company. Each share of Sonkei common stock was converted into 0.383 shares of Cyrenaic common stock, resulting in the issuance of 2,423,368 shares. There were certain common stockholders between Sonkei and Cyrenaic however, since the underlying investors in the venture funds were not “substantially similar”, the merger was accounted for a business combination with Cyrenaic being treated as the acquirer. The results of Sonkei are included in the consolidated financial statements commencing November 12, 2013. The Company merged with Sonkei in order to acquire Sonkei’s lead product candidate, MIN-117.

At the date of the merger, a Sonkei non-employee held 1,112,500 shares of Sonkei common stock with a nonrecourse note due to Sonkei, which was being treated as a stock option for accounting purposes. In connection with the merger, the Company issued 426,176 shares to the holder with a nonrecourse note (discussed further in Note 9 — Stockholders’ Equity) in order to replace the holder’s stock options in Sonkei. Due to the nonrecourse note, these shares of the Company were treated as stock options for accounting purposes and the holder of the option can only vest in the stock options if the holder continues to provide services to the Company through the time of a change in control, as defined. In summary, the Company issued replacement stock options of the Company for the old Sonkei stock options. As a change in control was not deemed probable as of the merger date, the options have not been included as part of the consideration transferred in the merger accounting. Accordingly, the Company will recognize all of the compensation expense for these stock options in the consolidated statement of operations once achievement of the performance condition becomes probable (see Note 9 — Stockholders’ Equity). The merger accounting purchase price was therefore determined based upon the common stock shares issued of 1,997,192 at a valuation of $9.49 per common share for a total purchase price of approximately $18.9 million.

The fair value of the Company’s common stock issued was determined based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector, discounted cash flows and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an IPO or a sale of the Company. The purchase price allocation was based upon an analysis of the fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired from Sonkei. Identifying the fair value of the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities acquired required the use of estimates by management, and were based upon currently available data, as noted below.

·

The fair value of current assets and liabilities approximated their book value.

·

The fair value of the convertible promissory notes was determined based upon a number of factors including (i) interest rate, (ii) creditworthiness of the Company, (iii) the applicable foreign exchange rate and (iv) the conversion features (described in Note 7 — Debt). The face amount of the note acquired is €518,519 (approximately $0.7 million at November 12, 2013).

13


·

The Company measured the value of the acquired IPR&D using the income approach — multi period excess earnings method and assembled workforce using the cost approach (for contributory asset charge calculations). The multi-period excess earning method measures the present value of the future earnings expected to be generated during the remaining lives of the subject assets.

·

The Company recorded a deferred tax liability for the difference in the book and tax basis of the IPR&D, multiplied by the effective income tax rate.

The Company allocated the excess of purchase price over the identifiable intangible and net tangible assets to goodwill. The goodwill recorded recognizes the synergies and value of the overall combined development programs, both the current pre-clinical development program in process and the future clinical trial development strategy. Such goodwill is not deductible for tax purposes. The aggregate consideration of $18.9 million has been allocated to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on estimated fair values at the date of merger November 12, 2013 as follows:

 

Cash

$

631,478

 

Goodwill

 

7,792,987

 

In-process research and development

 

19,000,000

 

Accrued expenses

 

(334,423

)

Derivative liability

 

(3,476

)

Deferred taxes

 

(7,463,200

)

Convertible promissory notes (see Note 7)

 

(680,000

)

 

$

18,943,366

 

 

The IPR&D, an indefinite-lived asset, will be included as an asset on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet until such time that: (i) a marketing approval to commercially sell the drug is received from a regulatory agency, in which case it will be amortized over its expected commercial life, or (ii) such time as the IPR&D is deemed to be impaired, in which case it will be expensed. The transaction is being treated as a stock purchase for income tax purposes and accordingly, the tax bases of Sonkei’s assets and liabilities are not adjusted for the effect of purchase accounting. A deferred tax liability of $7.5 million has been recorded for the difference in the book and tax basis of the IPR&D, multiplied by the effective income tax. The acquired net operating losses of Sonkei of approximately $5.3 million had a full valuation allowance, however, will be not limited under Internal Revenue Code Section 382 as the amount that could be utilized after limitation exceeds the amount of the net operating loss carryforward. As of September 30, 2014, the Company corrected the deferred tax rate used to record a deferred tax liability at the acquisition date by recording a $0.1 million reduction to deferred tax liability with a corresponding reduction to goodwill.

The unaudited financial information in the table below summarizes the combined results of operations for the Company, Sonkei and Mind-NRG on a pro forma basis as though the companies had been combined as of January 1, 2013. The unaudited pro forma financial information for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 combines the Company’s historical results for these years with the historical results for the comparable reporting periods for Sonkei and Mind-NRG. The unaudited pro forma financial information below is for informational purposes only and is not indicative of the results of operations or financial condition that would have been achieved if the merger would have taken place at the beginning of each of the periods presented and should not be taken as indicative of the Company’s future results of operations or financial condition. Included in our results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 is $1.3 million in operating expenses attributable to Mind-NRG.

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine months Ended

 

 

September 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Operating loss

$

(27,155,197

)

 

$

(1,110,023

)

 

$

(49,912,152

)

 

$

(2,682,000

)

Loss per share

$

(1.53

)

 

$

(0.15

)

 

$

(4.53

)

 

$

(0.37

)

 

 

14


NOTE 4 — ACCRUED EXPENSES AND OTHER LIABILITIES

Accrued expenses and other liabilities consist of the following:

 

 

September 30, 2014

 

 

December 31, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accrued payroll

$

229,785

 

 

$

126,910

 

Accrued excise and franchise taxes

 

203,991

 

 

 

 

Research and development costs

 

168,640

 

 

 

58,117

 

Primomed research funding (1)

 

132,721

 

 

 

 

Professional fees (2)

 

70,445

 

 

 

595,215

 

Consulting and other costs

 

27,024

 

 

 

5,031

 

Vacation pay

 

17,818

 

 

 

5,690

 

Interest payable

 

 

 

 

24,276

 

 

$

850,424

 

 

$

815,239

 

 

(1)

Under the terms of a research agreement with Primomed, the Company received grant funds that will be used to offset certain costs under the MIN-301 development program.

(2)

Accounts payable and accrued professional fees at December 31, 2013 included $0.4 million that was incurred in connection with the preparation for the Company’s IPO.

 

 

NOTE 5 — NET LOSS PER SHARE OF COMMON STOCK

Diluted loss per share is the same as basic loss per share for all periods presented as the effects of potentially dilutive issuances were anti-dilutive given the Company’s net loss. Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted loss per share for common stockholders:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

Nine months Ended

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Net loss

 

$

(27,155,197

)

 

$

(488,193

)

 

$

(49,459,277

)

 

$

(1,135,476

)

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding

 

 

17,752,371

 

 

 

4,091,027

 

 

 

10,798,432

 

 

 

3,858,687

 

Net loss per share of common stock – basic and diluted

 

$

(1.53

)

 

$

(0.12

)

 

$

(4.58

)

 

$

(0.29

)

 

The following securities outstanding at September 30, 2014 and 2013 have been excluded from the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding as their effect on the calculation of loss per share is antidilutive:

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Non-vested stock issued (see Note 9 – Stockholders’ Equity)

 

 

 

 

 

821,429

 

Common stock options

 

 

2,621,910

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE 6 — LICENSE AGREEMENTS

In January 2014, the Company renegotiated the structure of the license for MIN-101 such that the Company is required to make milestone payments upon the achievement of one development milestone totaling $0.5 million and certain commercial milestones, which could total up to $47.5 million. In addition, in the event that the Company sells the rights to the license, the licensor will be entitled to a percentage of milestone payments in the low teens and a percentage of royalties received by the Company in the low double digits. Under the terms of the amended agreement, the Company is required to meet a certain diligence obligation to commence a clinical pharmacology study of the licensed compound by the end of April 2015. The Company may extend this deadline for a further year by making an extension payment of $0.5 million. The number of extension payments that may be made is unlimited. In addition, if the Company fails to achieve this development milestone by end of April 2015 or make an extension payment, the licensor may elect to terminate the agreement.

In January 2014, the Company renegotiated the structure of the license for MIN-117 such that the Company is required to make certain milestone payments upon the achievement of certain commercial milestones up to $47.5 million. In addition, in the event that the Company sells the rights to the license, the licensor will be entitled to a percentage of milestone payments in the low teens and a percentage of royalties received by the Company in the low double digits. Under the terms of the amended agreement, the Company is required to meet a certain diligence obligation to initiate either a Phase II(a) or Phase II(b) study with the licensed compound in

15


patients suffering major mood disorders where initiation is defined as first patient enrolled in the study by the end of April 2015. If the Company fails to achieve this milestone, the Company may elect to extend the timeline to achieve the milestone by one year increments by making an extension payment of $0.5 million. The number of extension payments which may be made is unlimited. In addition, if the Company fails to achieve this development milestone by end April 2015 or make an extension payment, the licensor may elect to terminate the agreement.

The Company did not make any license payments under the agreements for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013.

 

NOTE 7 — DEBT

Loans Payable

In conjunction with the Mind-NRG acquisition on February 11, 2014 (discussed further in Note 3 — Business Combinations), working capital loans were executed between Mind-NRG and several stockholders or affiliates of stockholders for a maximum drawdown of $0.6 million. The loans bear interest at 8% and are repayable at the time the Company completes an IPO or December 1, 2015. The loans may be repaid at any time and contains standard terms of default, under which the interest rate would increase to 11%.

In April 2014, Mind-NRG repaid the working capital loans plus accrued interest, and certain stockholders and their affiliates subsequently executed new working capital loan agreements, with substantially identical terms, directly with the Company (the April Bridge Loan). The Company drew down the maximum $0.6 million available under the agreement in May 2014.

In May 2014, the Company entered into a new loan agreement (the May Bridge Loan) with certain stockholders and their affiliates. The Third Loan Agreement provides loan facilities to the Company up to a maximum of $1.0 million. The Third Loan Agreement bears interest at 8% per annum and is repayable at the time the Company completes an IPO or on December 1, 2015. The Third Loan Agreement contains standard terms of default, under which the interest rate would increase to 11% per annum. The Third Loan Agreement provides that any amount outstanding may be repaid at any time without penalty.

The Company drew down $1.4 million under the April and May Bridge Loan Agreements. In conjunction with the closing of the Company’s IPO on July 7, 2014, the Company repaid the outstanding principal balance under the April and May Bridge Loan agreements plus accrued interest of $11 thousand. Interest expense related to these loans for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 was $5 thousand and $16 thousand, respectively, and was included within interest expense (income), net.

Convertible Promissory Notes

On November 6, 2013, the Company issued $1.3 million 8% convertible promissory notes due June 30, 2014 to certain stockholders that are payable on demand at maturity. The notes contain certain terms of default, under which conditions the interest rate increases to 11% per annum.

In conjunction with the merger of Sonkei on November 12, 2013, the Company assumed convertible promissory notes held by certain stockholders with a principal amount of €518,519 ($0.7 million as of July 7, 2014). These notes have a stated interest rate of 8% per annum and a maturity date of June 30, 2014. The notes contains certain terms of default, under which conditions the interest rate increases to 11% per annum. In conjunction with the IPO, the Company’s 8% convertible promissory notes were converted on July 7, 2014 at the IPO price of $6.00 per share into 352,000 shares of the Company’s common stock.

The notes issued by the Company on November 6, 2013 and the notes issued by Sonkei on November 6, 2013 and subsequently acquired by the Company on November 12, 2013 (collectively, the “Notes”) contained identical terms and were convertible into common shares of the Company under the conditions described below.

i)

Discount Purchase Option. If the Company sells shares of its capital stock in the qualified financing, as defined, and the convertible promissory notes have not been paid in full, then the outstanding principal balance of these convertible promissory notes and accrued interest thereon shall convert into the common stock sold at the first closing of the qualified financing at a conversion price equal to the price per share paid by the Investors for each share of common stock multiplied by 80%.

ii)

Initial Public Offering. If the Company conducts an IPO of its common shares before June 30, 2014, then the convertible promissory notes plus accrued interest will convert at the price per share issued in the IPO.

iii)

$3.50/€3.50 Conversion Option. Subsequent to April 30, 2014, investors may elect to convert the Notes, and accrued interest into common stock of the Company at a conversion price of $3.50 per common share.

16


Discount Purchase Option

The Notes contained an embedded derivative related to the discount purchase feature. The initial fair value of the derivative liability at the date of initial recognition was determined to be $9,976 using a probability-weighted valuation model applying the following assumptions: (i) discount rate of 8.0%, (ii) remaining term of approximately 7 months and (iii) the probabilities of conversion under various circumstances as at the date of measurement. The proceeds allocated to this conversion option of $9,976 were deducted from the initial fair value of the debt obligation. As of December 31, 2013, the fair value of the derivative liability was determined to be $10,093 using a probability-weighted valuation model applying the following assumptions: (i) discount rate of 8.0%, (ii) remaining term of approximately 6 months and (iii) the probabilities of conversion under various circumstances as at the date of measurement.

Upon conversion of the Notes on July 7, 2014, the fair value of the derivative liability was determined to be $0 and the $10,093 decrease in the fair value of the derivative liability was included as a component of interest for the nine months ended September 30, 2014. No amounts were charged to interest expense during the three months ending September 30, 2014.

$3.50/€3.50 Conversion Option

The Notes contained a beneficial conversion feature. The intrinsic value of the beneficial conversion feature was calculated by measuring the difference between the effective conversion price and the fair value of the common stock at initial recognition. The Company recorded a debt discount for the intrinsic value of the beneficial conversion feature that was limited to the proceeds of the Notes received of approximately $2.0 million, with an offsetting increase to additional paid-in capital. The discount was amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method through the date of the Notes’ conversion of July 7, 2014.

 

For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, the Company recognized interest expense of approximately $3 thousand and $2.0 million related to the Notes, respectively, within interest expense (income), net.

 

NOTE 8 — CO-DEVELOPMENT AND LICENSE AGREEMENT

On February 12, 2014, the Company signed a co-development and license agreement with Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. (“Janssen”) and Janssen Research & Development, LLC (“JJDC”), subject to the completion of an IPO and the payment of a $22.0 million license fee. Under the agreement, the licensor granted the Company an exclusive license, with the right to sublicense, in the European Union, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Iceland and Norway, referred to as the Minerva Territory, under (i) certain patent and patent applications to sell products containing any orexin 2 compound, controlled by the licensor and claimed in a licensor patent right as an active ingredient and (ii) MIN-202 for any use in humans. In addition, upon regulatory approval in the Minerva Territory (and earlier if certain default events occur), the Company will have rights to manufacture MIN-202. The Company has granted to the licensor an exclusive license, with the right to sublicense, under all patent rights and know-how controlled by the Company related to MIN-202 to sell MIN-202 outside the Minerva Territory.

In consideration of the licenses granted on July 7, 2014, the Company made a license fee payment of $22.0 million on July 7, 2014, which was included as a component of research and development expense in the third quarter of 2014. The Company will pay a quarterly royalty percentage in the high single digits on aggregate net sales for MIN-202 products sold by the Company, its affiliates and sublicensees in the European Union. The licensor will pay a quarterly royalty percentage to the Company in the high single digits on aggregate net sales for MIN-202 products sold by the licensor outside the European Union.

In accordance with the development agreement, the Company will pay 40% of MIN-202 development costs related to the joint development of any MIN-202 products. However, the Company’s share of aggregate development costs shall not exceed (i) $5.0 million for the period beginning from the effective date of the license and ending following the completion of certain Phase Ib clinical trials and animal toxicology studies, and (ii) $24.0 million for the period beginning from the effective date of the license and ending following the completion of certain Phase II clinical trials.

The licensor has a right to opt out at the end of certain development milestones, with the first milestone being the completion of a single day Phase I clinical trial in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (“MDD”). Upon opt out, the licensor will not have to fund further development of MIN-202 and the Minerva Territory will be expanded to also include all of North America. The Company would then owe the licensor a reduced royalty in the mid-single digits for all sales in the Minerva Territory. The Company has the right to terminate the license following certain development milestones the first being completion of a certain Phase Ib clinical trial in patients with insomnia and certain toxicology studies in animals. If the Company terminates the license within 45 days of this milestone, the Company must pay a termination fee equal to $3.0 million. If the Company terminates the license at any time following the last development milestone involving a certain Phase IIb clinical trial, the Company will be entitled to a royalty in the mid-single digits from sales of MIN-202 by the licensor. The licensor may also terminate the agreement for the Company’s material breach or certain insolvency events, including if the Company is unable to fund its portion of the development costs.

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The Company included the $22.0 million license fee payment as a component of research and development expense since the licensed rights were not deemed to have an alternative future use. The Company accounts for the co-development and license agreement as a joint risk-sharing collaboration in accordance with ASC 808, Collaboration Arrangements. Payments between the Company and the licensor with respect to each party’s share of MIN-202 development costs that have been incurred pursuant to the joint development plan are recorded within research and development expense or general and administrative expense, as applicable, in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements due to the joint risk-sharing nature of the activities. The Company has included $1.4 million in accrued expenses as of September 30, 2014 related to this agreement.

The Company entered into a common stock purchase agreement with an affiliate of the above mentioned licensor, dated as of February 12, 2014, pursuant to which, among other things, the affiliate agreed to purchase from the Company up to $26.0 million of common stock in a private placement concurrent with the closing of the IPO at a price equal to the IPO price. This investment was consummated simultaneously with the closing of an IPO in July 2014 with the purchase by the affiliate of 3,284,353 shares of common stock resulting in net proceeds to the Company of $19.7 million.

 

NOTE 9 — STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Reverse Stock Split

The board of directors and holders of the requisite number of outstanding shares of our common stock approved an amendment to our restated certificate of incorporation to effect a 3.5-to-1 reverse stock split of our outstanding common stock (the “reverse stock split”) that became effective on June 9, 2014 upon the filing of our Certificate of Amendment of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the Delaware Secretary of State. The reverse stock split did not result in an adjustment to par value. All issued and outstanding common stock, warrants for common stock, options to purchase common stock, share transactions, and related per share amounts contained in the consolidated financial statements have been retroactively adjusted to reflect this reverse stock split for all periods presented. On June 9, 2014, the Company amended its Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to increase the total number of authorized shares to 225,000,000 shares, consisting of 125,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share and 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

Initial Public Offering and Concurrent Private Placements

On July 7, 2014, the Company closed the sale of 5,454,545 shares of its common stock at a price to the public of $6.00 per share, or an aggregate of approximately $32.7 million.  On July 29, 2014, the Company closed the sale of an over-allotment of 160,993 shares of its common stock at a price of $6.00 per share. Net proceeds to the Company from the offering and the over allotment were approximately $28.2 million, after deducting the underwriting discount and expenses of approximately $3.1 million. In addition, the Company closed the sale in a private placement of 666,666 shares of its common stock at a price of $6.00 per share, or an aggregate of approximately $4.0 million.  Net proceeds to the Company were approximately $3.7 million, after deducting the underwriting discount. JJDC purchased 3,284,353 shares of the Company’s common stock in a private placement resulting in net proceeds to the Company of approximately $19.7 million.

Common Stock Issued for Nonrecourse Notes

On April 26, 2012, the Company issued 821,429 shares of its common stock in exchange for a nonrecourse note of $3,058,026 (or approximately $3.71 per share, the “Original Price”). The note payable was due in a single installment on February 28, 2014, and was amended to extend the maturity date to September 30, 2014. The note bears interest at the rate of 0.19% per annum and is secured solely by the underlying stock. The stock purchase agreement contains i) a right of first refusal held by the Company, whereby if a third party buyer offers to buy the holder’s stock at a certain price, then the Company has the right to purchase the stock at that same price; and ii) a standard drag-along in case of a sale of the Company. In lieu of payment, the holder is entitled to offset amounts owed under the nonrecourse note in connection with the Company repurchasing common stock from the holder. The Company has the option (a call option) to repurchase the shares if the holder ceases to provide services to the Company or after September 30, 2014, at the Original Price. The holder has the option (a put option) to require the Company to repurchase the shares at any time at the Original Price.

In accordance with ASC 718-10-25, the purchase of stock in exchange for a nonrecourse note effectively is the same as granting a stock option. If the value of the underlying shares falls below the note amount, the stockholder will relinquish the stock in lieu of repaying the note and would be in the same position as if he or she never purchased the stock. Further, as the shares sold subject to the nonrecourse note are considered an option for accounting purposes, the Company did not record a nonrecourse note or shares outstanding on the balance sheet. The Company also did not recognize interest income on the note as that interest is included in the exercise price of the option. The ultimate holder of the option can only benefit from the instrument if he continues to provide services to the Company through the time of a change in control, as defined. As a change in control was not deemed probable, stock-based compensation expense was not recorded for the year ended December 31, 2013.

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In December 2013, the Company issued 27,925 shares of common stock to the holder, subject to a $97,737 nonrecourse note payable by the holder. The accounting for the additional share issuance is consistent with the 821,429 shares discussed above.

Sonkei had a similar arrangement with the consultant, whereby Sonkei issued 1,112,500 shares of its common stock in exchange for a nonrecourse note of €1,119,017 (approximately $1.5 million at December 31, 2013). The note payable is due in a single installment on April 30, 2015. The note bears interest at the rate of 0.19% per annum and is secured solely by the underlying stock. As the shares sold subject to the nonrecourse note are considered an option for accounting purposes, the Company did not record a note or shares outstanding on the balance sheet. The Company also did not recognize interest income on the note as that interest is included in the exercise price of the option.

The ultimate holder of the option can only benefit from the instrument if he continues to provide services to the Company through the time of a change in control, as defined in the applicable agreement. Until a change in control is deemed probable, stock-based compensation expense will not be recorded. The Company assumed this agreement upon the merger with Sonkei, and the Sonkei shares were converted into the Company’s common shares in accordance with the terms of the merger agreement (see Note 3 — Business Combinations).

On March 31, 2014, the issuer of the $4.7 million nonrecourse notes, which includes accrued interest, remitted to the Company 348,926 shares of common stock with a fair value of $13.51 per share in full settlement of the outstanding note due in a cashless transaction. Additionally, the Company further modified the awards by cancelling the put option and adding a term whereby upon an IPO the award will vest. The remittance of the shares in exchange for settling the outstanding note, the cancellation of the put option, and the addition of the IPO performance condition, represents a modification of the original terms of the stock options. The effect of these changes is that the Company has modified the awards and has converted approximately 1.3 million stock options with an exercise price of $4.7 million to 926,604 shares of non-vested stock (with no exercise price). The non-vested stock remained subject to the above mentioned vesting conditions of a change in control and IPO, which are not deemed probable until they occur. As described in the preceding sentence, the effect of the modification was to replace stock options that were improbable of vesting with non-vested stock that is improbable of vesting and accordingly, the Company did not recognize stock-based compensation expense for the non-vested stock at the time that the vesting conditions are deemed probable of occurrence.  The following is a summary of common shares issued in exchange for nonrecourse notes for the years December 31, 2012 and 2013 and the nine months ended September 30, 2014:

 

 

 

Common Shares

 

Outstanding January 1, 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Issued

 

 

821,429

 

Outstanding December 31, 2012

 

 

821,429

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assumed in Sonkei merger

 

 

426,176

 

 

 

 

 

 

Issued

 

 

27,925

 

Outstanding December 31, 2013

 

 

1,275,530

 

 

 

 

 

 

Repurchased

 

 

(348,926

)

Shares vested June 30, 2014

 

 

926,604

 

 

 

The 926,604 shares of non-vested common stock held by the consultant became probable of vesting upon the effectiveness of the Company’s IPO registration statement on June 30, 2014, resulting in a charge for stock-based compensation of approximately $10.5 million, representing the 926,604 shares multiplied by the fair value per share on May 1, 2014, the date the consultant became an employee, less previous compensation expense recorded.

 

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NOTE 10 — STOCK OPTION PLAN

The Company adopted the 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the Plan) in December 2013, which provides for the issuance of options, stock appreciation rights, stock awards and stock units. On April 30, 2014, the Company increased the shares reserved for issuance under the 2013 Equity Incentive Plan to 3,543,754.  The exercise price per share shall not be less than the fair value of the Company’s underlying common stock on the grant date and no option may have a term in excess of ten years. Stock option activity under the Plan is as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-Average

 

 

 

Stock Options

 

 

Exercise Price

 

Outstanding January 1, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Granted

 

 

646,759

 

 

$

9.49

 

Outstanding December 31, 2013

 

 

646,759

 

 

$

9.49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Granted

 

 

1,975,151

 

 

$

6.05

 

Outstanding September 30, 2014

 

 

2,621,910

 

 

$

6.90

 

Exercisable September 30, 2014

 

 

633,996

 

 

$

6.33

 

 

The fair value of each stock option to purchase common stock of the Company granted on December 20, 2013 was estimated by management using the Black-Scholes option pricing model applying the following assumptions: (i) expected term of 5.8 to 10 years, (ii) risk free interest rate of 1.9 to 2.9%, (iii) volatility of 102 to 107%, (iv) no dividend yield and (v) a grant date fair value of common stock of $9.49 per share. The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 related to these options of $0.3 million and $0.9 million, respectively, which is included in general and administrative expense.

The table above includes stock options granted on December 20, 2013 to purchase an aggregate of 20,089 shares of the Company’s common stock which became fully vested and exercisable on June 30, 2014, the effective date of the Company’s IPO registration statement.  The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 related to these options of $0.1 million, which is included in general and administrative expense.

The Company entered into two employment agreements effective May 1, 2014. In accordance with the employment agreements, on June 30, 2014, the Company granted 539,116 fully vested stock options to purchase shares of the Company’s common shares at an exercise price of $6.00 per share and recognized stock based compensation expense of approximately $2.8 million related to these grants on the grant date. The fair value of each such option was estimated by management using the Black Scholes option pricing model applying the following assumptions: (i) expected term of 6.25 years, (ii) risk free interest rate of 1.9%, (iii) volatility of 113%, (iv) no dividend yield and (v) a grant date fair value of common stock of $6.00 per share.

Under the terms of three employment agreements, the Company issued 955,932 stock options upon the effective date of the Company's IPO registration statement, which vest over a four-year period beginning from November 12, 2013, the date of the Sonkei Merger.  The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense related to these options of approximately $0.3 million and $1.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, respectively.  The fair value of each such option was estimated by management using the Black Scholes option pricing model applying the following assumptions: (i) expected term of 6.25 years, (ii) risk free interest rate of 1.9%, (iii) volatility of 113%, (iv) no dividend yield and (v) a grant date fair value of common stock of $6.00 per share.

An additional 480,103 options were granted to employees and directors at and following the IPO of which 352,590 options vest over a four year period and 127,513 options vest over a three year period beginning with the date each recipient began providing service. The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense related to these options of approximately $0.3 million and $0.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, respectively.  The fair value of each of these options to purchase common stock of the Company granted was estimated by management using the Black Scholes option pricing model applying the following assumptions: (i) expected term of 6-6.25 years, (ii) risk free interest rate of 1.9%, (iii) volatility of 113%, (iv) no dividend yield.

The weighted average grant-date fair value of stock options outstanding on September 30, 2014 was $5.81 per share. Total unrecognized compensation costs related to non-vested awards at September 30, 2014 was approximately $9.6 million and is expected to be recognized within future operating results over a period of 3.1 years. At September 30, 2014, the weighted average contractual term of the options outstanding is approximately 9.6 years. The intrinsic value of outstanding stock options at September 30, 2014 was $0.1 million.

 

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NOTE 11 — INCOME TAXES

There was no provision for income taxes for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 due to losses.

As of December 31, 2013, the Company has approximately $16.0 million of Federal net operating losses that will begin to expire in 2027. As of December 31, 2013, the Company had approximately $11.0 million of New Jersey operating losses that will begin to expire in 2014. As of December 31, 2013, the Company had approximately $0.2 million of federal research and development credits that will begin to expire in 2027. The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“IRC”) limits the amounts of net operating loss carryforwards that a company may use in any one year in the event of certain cumulative changes in ownership over a three-year period as described in Section 382 of the IRC. The Company has not performed a detailed analysis to determine whether an ownership change has occurred as of December 31, 2013.

Deferred tax liabilities related to indefinite-lived assets typically are not used as a source of income to support realization of deferred tax assets in jurisdictions where tax attributes expire (e.g., jurisdictions where net operating loss carryforwards expire) unless the deferred tax liability is expected to reverse prior to the expiration date of the tax attribute. Therefore, the net operating losses of Sonkei cannot be used to offset the deferred tax liability resulting from the IPR&D due to the fact that the IPR&D currently has an indefinite life while the NOLs have a maximum life of 20 years.

 

NOTE 12 — COMMITMENTS

In September 2014, the Company entered into a lease agreement for 4,043 square feet of office space in Waltham, MA. The term of the lease is approximately 2 years, and the Company is required to make monthly rental payments commencing December 2014. Estimated annual rent payable under this operating lease is approximately $0.1 million per year in each of the two years.

 

NOTE 13 — RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

An investor provided accounting and other services to the Company and Sonkei for $60 thousand in the aggregate per year during 2013 and early 2014. For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, the expense recognized in operating results in connection with these services was $35 thousand and $45 thousand, respectively.  For the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, the expense recognized in operating results in connection with these services was $0 and $15 thousand, respectively.

The Company retained the services of certain consultants who were also stockholders of the Company.  For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, the expense recognized by the Company in connection with these services was $0.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively. For the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, the expense recognized by the Company in connection with these services was $0 and $0.1 million, respectively.

Also refer to Note 8 – Co-Development and License Agreement and Note 9 – Stockholder’s Equity for additional related party transactions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Item 2.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our annual audited financial statements included in the Prospectus for the year ended December 31, 2013 as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 30, 2014.

Historical Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of a portfolio of product candidates to treat patients suffering from central nervous system, or CNS, diseases. Leveraging our domain expertise, we have acquired or in-licensed four development-stage proprietary compounds that we believe have innovative mechanisms of action with potentially positive therapeutic profiles. Our lead product candidates are MIN-101, a compound we are developing for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and MIN-202, a compound we are co-developing for the treatment of patients suffering from primary and secondary insomnia. In addition, our portfolio includes MIN-117, a compound for the treatment of patients suffering from major depressive disorder, or MDD and MIN-301, a compound for the treatment of patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease. We believe our innovative product candidates have significant potential to transform the lives of a large number of affected patients and their families who are currently not well-served by available therapies in each of their respective indications.

We exclusively licensed MIN-101 from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, or MTPC, in 2007 with the rights to develop, sell and import MIN-101 globally, excluding most of Asia. In November 2013, we merged with Sonkei Pharmaceuticals Inc., or Sonkei, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company and, in February 2014, we acquired Mind-NRG SA, or Mind-NRG, a pre-clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company. We refer to these transactions as the Sonkei Merger and Mind-NRG Acquisition, respectively. Sonkei licensed MIN-117 from MTPC in 2008 with the rights to develop, sell and import MIN-117 globally, excluding most of Asia. With the acquisition of Mind-NRG, we obtained exclusive rights to develop and commercialize MIN-301. We have also entered into a co-development and license agreement with Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., or Janssen, for the exclusive rights to develop and commercialize MIN-202 in the European Union, subject to royalty payments to Janssen, and royalty rights for any sales outside the European Union.

We have not received regulatory approvals to sell any of our product candidates, and we have not generated any revenue from the sales or license of our product candidates. We have incurred significant operating losses since inception. We have historically financed our operations, including the development of MIN-101, through the sale of common stock and convertible promissory notes. Likewise, Sonkei raised capital to fund the development of MIN-117 through the sale of common stock and convertible promissory notes. Funds managed by Care Capital and Index Ventures are our principal investors, and were the principal investors of Sonkei, and collectively owned approximately 50% of our capital stock at September 30, 2014.  The operations of Mind-NRG were financed through the sale of preferred stock. Funds managed by Index Ventures were among the investors in Mind-NRG.

We expect to incur net losses and negative cash flow from operating activities for the foreseeable future in connection with the clinical development and the potential regulatory approval, infrastructure development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Operational Update

On June 30, 2014, our registration statement on Form S-1 was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission for our initial public offering, or IPO, pursuant to which we sold an aggregate of 5,454,545 shares of our common stock pursuant to an underwriting agreement dated June 30, 2014, at a price to the public of $6.00 per share, or gross proceeds of approximately $32.7 million. On July 7, 2014, we closed the sale of all such shares, resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $25.2 million, after deducting the underwriting discount of $2.3 million, expenses of approximately $3.1 million, the repayment of the bridge loans of $1.4 million and the ProteoSys license fee payment of $0.7 million.  On July 7, 2014, we also closed the sale of a private placement of 666,666 common shares resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $3.7 million, after deducting the underwriting discount. On July 7, 2014, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, or JJDC, purchased 3,284,353 shares of our common stock in a private placement resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $19.7 million, representing approximately 18% of our outstanding common shares.  In accordance with our license agreement for MIN-202, on July 7, 2014 we paid a $22.0 million license fee to Janssen.  

On September 22, 2014, we announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration completed its review of the Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, for MIN-202, our selective antagonist for the orexin-2 receptor in development for the treatment of insomnia. A bioavailability study to advance development of MIN-202, which is being developed by us in collaboration with Janssen and JJDC is being initiated by Janssen. The bioavailability study will be the first clinical trial initiated for MIN-202 in the United States. The study will be a randomized, open-label, 3-way crossover study in healthy male subjects to evaluate the bioavailability, food effect, safety and tolerability of solid dosage formulation of MIN-202.

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In addition to this study, Janssen is conducting two other phase 1 studies with MIN-202, including a Phase 1b study in patients suffering from secondary insomnia and MDD and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multiple ascending dose, or MAD, study in healthy male and female subjects. The primary objective of the MAD study is to investigate pharmacokinetic data for several doses of MIN-202 and to explore the safety and tolerability of MIN-202 versus placebo during 10 days of consecutive dose administration.

We are conducting a once daily dose formulation study to evaluate MIN-101 modified release prototype formulations and to evaluate the relationship between the pharmacokinetic profile and cardiovascular parameters following multiple dose administration through our contract research organization, or CRO. We continue to make progress under this study and intend to select a formulation to be used in a Phase IIb study for MIN-101 during 2015. We are currently preparing the necessary regulatory approvals to conduct this Phase IIb multi-country study in Europe, which will evaluate the efficacy of MIN-101 in stabile subjects with schizophrenia suffering from predominantly negative symptoms.

Subject to the receipt of additional financing, we plan to conduct additional clinical trials of MIN-117. We also plan to explore the potential for a collaboration for the future clinical development and commercialization of MIN-117 for the treatment of MDD. We are conducting material scale-up for IND-enabling studies for MIN-301 and will need to obtain additional funding to initiate human trials of MIN-301.

We expect to incur net losses and negative cash flow from operating activities for the foreseeable future in connection with the clinical development and the potential regulatory approval, infrastructure development and commercialization of our product candidates. We will require additional capital to finance our operations, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. As a result, we may not complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates or develop new product candidates. We may also selectively explore collaborations with leading pharmaceutical companies to maximize the value of our current product candidate portfolio.

Financial Overview

Presentation

On November 12, 2013, we merged with Sonkei, in order to acquire Sonkei’s lead product candidate, MIN-117. The results of Sonkei are included in our accompanying financial statements commencing November 12, 2013. The fair value of our common stock issued in the merger was determined based on a number of objective and subjective factors, and substantially all of the purchase price was allocated to in-process research and development and goodwill. As part of the acquisition, we assumed $0.7 million of convertible notes, which were converted into 352,000 shares of our common stock on July 7, 2014 at the IPO offering price of $6.00 per share.

At the date of the merger, a Sonkei consultant held 1,112,500 shares of Sonkei common stock paid for with a nonrecourse note, which was treated as a stock option for accounting purposes. For accounting purposes, this stock option would only vest if the consultant continued to provide services to Sonkei through the effective date of a change in control. In connection with the merger, we issued 426,176 shares of common stock to this consultant in order to replace his common stock in Sonkei. We recognized stock-based compensation expense of approximately $10.5 million for this stock grant in our statement of operations upon the effective date of the IPO.

On February 11, 2014, we acquired Mind-NRG in order to acquire Mind-NRG’s lead product candidate, MIN-301. The fair value of the 1,481,583 shares of common stock issued to the stockholders of Mind-NRG was approximately $16.5 million, substantially all of which was allocated to in-process research and development and goodwill.

Revenue. None of our product candidates have been approved for commercialization and we have not received any revenue in connection with the sale or license of our product candidates.

Research and Development Expense. Research and development expense consists of costs incurred in connection with the development of our product candidates, including: fees paid to consultants and CROs, including in connection with our non-clinical and clinical trials, and other related clinical trial fees, such as for investigator grants, patient screening, laboratory work, clinical trial database management, clinical trial material management and statistical compilation and analysis; licensing fees; costs related to acquiring clinical trial materials; costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements; and costs related to salaries, bonuses and stock-based compensation granted to consultants and employees in research and development functions.  We expense research and development costs as they are incurred.

In the future, we expect research and development expense to consist of the items described above as well as expense incurred in performing research and development activities, including compensation and benefits for full-time research and development employees and facilities expenses. These costs may also include non-cash stock-based compensation expense as part of our

23


compensation strategy to attract and retain qualified staff. We expect research and development expense to be our largest category of operating expense and to increase as we continue our planned pre-clinical and clinical trials for our product candidates.

Completion dates and completion costs can vary significantly for each product candidate and are difficult to predict. We anticipate we will make determinations as to which programs to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program on an ongoing basis in response to the scientific and clinical success or failure of each product candidate, the estimated costs to continue the development program relative to our available resources, as well as an ongoing assessment as to each product candidate’s commercial potential. We will need to raise additional capital or may seek additional product collaborations in the future in order to complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

General and Administrative Expense. General and administrative expenses consist principally of consulting and professional services costs for functions in executive, finance, business development, legal, auditing and taxes. Historically, substantially all of these services were provided by third party consultants, as none of the three former companies had employees until October 2013. Our general and administrative expenses in 2014 include non-cash stock-based compensation expense with respect to option grants to consultants and employees hired and directors who joined our board of directors subsequent to October 2013. Other costs primarily include salaries, bonuses, facility costs and professional fees for accounting, consulting and legal services.

In the future, we expect general and administrative expenses to consist primarily of salaries and related benefits, facility costs, information technology, travel expenses and professional fees for auditing, tax and legal services. General and administrative costs also include non-cash stock-based compensation expense as part of our compensation strategy to attract and retain qualified staff. We expect general and administrative expenses to be higher in 2014 versus the prior year in order to support our operations as a public reporting company, including increased payroll, consulting, legal and compliance, accounting, insurance and investor relations costs.

Foreign Exchange Gains. Foreign exchange gains are comprised primarily of foreign currency exchange gains or losses resulting from clinical trial expenses denominated in Euros.  Since our initial planned clinical trials are expected to be in Europe, we expect to continue to incur expenses in Euros. We record expenses in U.S. dollars at the time the liability is incurred. Changes in the applicable foreign currency rate between the date an expense is recorded and the payment date is recorded as a foreign currency gain or loss.

Interest Expense (Income), Net. Interest expense consists of interest incurred under our former debt obligations, including our 8.0% convertible promissory notes and our 8.0% working capital loans.  Interest expense under our 8.0% convertible promissory notes includes the amortization of the debt discount related to the beneficial conversion feature of the convertible promissory notes as well as coupon interest.  Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents.

Results of Operations

Comparison of Three Months Ended September 30, 2014 versus September 30, 2013

Research and Development Expenses

Total research and development expenses were $24.7 million for the three months ended September 30, 2014 compared to $0.2 million for the same period in 2013, an increase of $24.5 million. The increase was primarily due to a $22.0 million license fee paid to Janssen pursuant to our co-development agreement for MIN-202, $1.4 million in program costs related to MIN-202 and $1.0 million in higher development costs related to a once daily dose formulation study initiated in 2014 for MIN-101.

General and Administrative Expenses

Total general and administrative expenses were $2.4 million for the three months ended September 30, 2014 compared to $0.3 million for the same period in 2013, an increase of approximately $2.1 million.  The increase was primarily due to $1.0 million in expenses related to staffing, office leases and information systems necessary to support our operations, $0.8 million in stock-based compensation expense and $0.3 million in higher legal and professional fees related to intellectual property matters and our operations as a public company.

Foreign Exchange Gains (Losses)

Foreign exchange gains (losses) were $11 thousand for the three months ended September 30, 2014 compared to ($3) thousand for the same period in 2013, an increase of $14 thousand.  The increase was primarily due to certain expenses of Mind-NRG and certain clinical activities denominated in Euros, with more positive currency movements in 2014.

24


Interest (Income)/Expense, Net

Interest expense was $15 thousand for the three months ended September 30, 2014 compared to $3 thousand for the same period in 2013, an increase of $12 thousand. For the three months ended September 30, 2014, we recognized interest expense related to our convertible promissory notes and our 8% short term working capital loans.

Comparison of Nine months Ended September 30, 2014 versus September 30, 2013

Research and Development Expenses

Total research and development expenses was $39.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 compared to $0.5 million for the same period in 2013, an increase of $39.4 million. The increase was primarily due to a $22.0 million license fee paid to Janssen pursuant to our co-development agreement for MIN-202, $13.0 million in stock-based compensation expense, $1.8 million in higher development costs related to a once daily dose formulation study initiated in 2014 for MIN-101, $1.4 million in program costs related to MIN-202 and $1.2 million in costs related to our other drug development programs. The increase in stock-based compensation expense was primarily due to 926,604 shares of common stock that became vested and resulted in a $10.5 million charge and the issuance of an option to purchase 441,973 shares of common stock to one of our founders.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses totaled $7.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 compared to $0.6 million for the same period in 2013, representing an increase of approximately $6.9 million.  The increase was primarily due to $2.7 million in stock-based compensation expense, $1.9 million in higher legal fees related to intellectual property matters, our IPO and our operations as a public company and $2.3 million in expenses related to staffing, office leases and information systems necessary to support our operations.

Foreign Exchange Gains (Losses)

Foreign exchange gains (losses) were $15 thousand for the three months ended September 30, 2014 compared to ($3) thousand for the same period in 2013, an increase of $18 thousand.  The increase was primarily due to certain expenses of Mind-NRG and certain clinical activities denominated in Euros, with more positive currency movements in 2014.

Interest (Income)/Expense, Net

Interest expense was approximately $2.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 as compared to $0 for the same period in 2013. For the nine months ended September 30, 2014, we recognized interest expense of approximately $2.0 million related to our convertible promissory notes, comprised primarily of the amortization of the debt discount created upon the allocation of proceeds to the beneficial conversion feature of the notes and $82 thousand in coupon interest. For the nine months ended September 30, 2014, we also recorded $16 thousand in interest expense related to our 8% short-term working capital loans.

The convertible promissory notes contained a beneficial conversion feature allowing noteholders to convert the notes and accrued interest into shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $3.50 per common share at any time after April 30, 2014. In conjunction with the IPO, the notes were converted into 352,000 common stock on July 7, 2014. The debt discount related to the intrinsic value of the beneficial conversion feature of approximately $2.0 million was amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources of Liquidity

We have incurred losses and cumulative negative cash flows from operations since our inception in April 2007 and, as of September 30, 2014, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $67.3 million. We anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future as we continue the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates and to support our operations as a public company. At September 30, 2014, we had approximately $23.6 million in cash and cash equivalents. We believe that our cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations through the end of 2015.

Initial Public Offering

On June 30, 2014, our registration statement on Form S-1 was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission for our initial public offering pursuant to which we sold an aggregate of 5,454,545 shares of our common stock pursuant to an underwriting agreement dated June 30, 2014, at a price to the public of $6.00 per share, or gross proceeds of approximately $32.7 million. On July 7, 2014, we closed the sale of all such shares, resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $25.2 million, after deducting the underwriting discount of $2.3 million, expenses of approximately $3.1 million, repayment of the bridge loans of $1.4 million and the

25


ProteoSys license payment of $0.7 million. On July 29, 2014, we closed the sale of an over-allotment of 160,993 shares of its common stock at a price of $6.00 per share, resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $0.9 million, after deducting the underwriting discount of approximately $0.1 million.

Private Placement

On July 7, 2014 we also closed the sale of a private placement of 666,666 common shares resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $3.7 million, after deducting the underwriting discount of $0.3 million.

Janssen Co-Development and License Agreement

On July 7, 2014, JJDC purchased 3,284,353 shares of our common stock in a private placement resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately $19.7 million, representing approximately 18% of our outstanding shares of common stock.  In accordance with our license agreement for MIN-202, we paid a $22.0 million license fee to Janssen on July 7, 2014.

Convertible Promissory Notes

During November 2013, we issued 8% convertible promissory notes in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $1.3 million to certain stockholders which were payable by us on June 30, 2014.  During November 2013, prior to the merger of Sonkei into us, Sonkei issued convertible promissory notes for €0.5 million (approximately $0.7 million as of July 7, 2014) in aggregate to certain of its stockholders, which we assumed at the time of the merger with Sonkei. The notes had a stated interest rate of 8% per annum. Upon completion of the IPO in July 2014, the outstanding principal balance of the notes and accrued interest were converted into an aggregate of 352,000 shares of common stock at the IPO offering price of $6.00 per share.

Working Capital Loans

In February 2014, we entered into loan agreements for working capital up to a maximum of $0.6 million in connection with the Mind-NRG Acquisition. As of March 31, 2014, the balance outstanding under these loans was $0.5 million, which were repaid in full with accrued interest in April 2014.

In April 2014, we entered into bridge loans with certain Mind-NRG stockholders and their affiliates that provided loan facilities of up to $0.6 million at an annual interest rate of 8.0%, subject to prepayment at any time without penalty. In May 2014, we entered into additional bridge loans with certain Mind-NRG stockholders and their affiliates which provided loan facilities up to a maximum of $1.0 million, at an annual interest rate of 8%, subject to repayment at any time without penalty. The balance outstanding under all such bridge loans were repaid in full with accrued interest in July 2014.

Cash Flows

The table below summarizes our significant sources and uses of cash for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013:

 

 

 

Nine months Ended

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

 

(dollars in millions)

 

Net cash provided by (used in):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

$

(30.9

)

 

$

(1.0

)

Investing activities

 

 

1.1

 

 

 

 

Financing activities

 

 

51.6

 

 

 

1.9

 

Net increase in cash

 

$

21.8

 

 

$

0.9

 

 

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities of approximately $30.9 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was due primarily to our net loss of $49.5 million, partially offset by stock-based compensation expense of $15.7 million, interest expense of $2.0 million and a $1.4 million increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses. The net loss included a $22.0 million license fee paid to Janssen pursuant to our co-development agreement for MIN-202.

Net cash used in operating activities of $1.0 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2013 was primarily a result of our net loss of $1.1 million, partially offset by changes in working capital.

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Net Cash Provided by Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2014 primarily consisted of $1.2 million of cash acquired in February 2014 in conjunction with the Mind-NRG Acquisition.

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities of $51.6 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was due to the net proceeds from our IPO and concurrent private placements of $54.8 million, partially offset by IPO costs paid during the period of $3.1 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities of $1.9 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2013 was due to the proceeds from the sale of common stock.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

The following table summarizes our contractual obligations at September 30, 2014 and the effects such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods (in millions):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MORE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESS THAN

 

 

1-3

 

 

3-5

 

 

FIVE

 

 

 

TOTAL

 

 

A YEAR

 

 

YEARS

 

 

YEARS

 

 

YEARS

 

Contractual Obligations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating lease obligations (1)

 

$

0.2

 

 

$

0.1

 

 

$

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total contractual cash obligations

 

$

0.2

 

 

$

0.1

 

 

$

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Represents operating lease costs, consisting of leases for office space in Waltham, MA.

Payments under our licenses are not included as contractual obligations in the table above due to the uncertainty of the occurrence of the events requiring payment under these agreements, including our share of potential future milestone and royalty payments. These payments generally become due and payable only upon the achievement of certain clinical development, regulatory or commercial milestones.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined under Securities and Exchange Commission rules.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

In preparing our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP, and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, we make assumptions, judgments and estimates that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our assumptions, judgments and estimates on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. On a regular basis, we evaluate our assumptions, judgments and estimates. We also discuss our critical accounting policies and estimates with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

We believe that the assumptions, judgments and estimates involved in the accounting for stock-based compensation, stock options, fair value of common stock, in-process research and development, acquisitions, research and development expenses and clinical trial accruals have the greatest potential impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. These areas are key components of our results of operations and are based on complex rules requiring us to make judgments and estimates, so we consider these to be our critical accounting policies. Historically, our assumptions, judgments and estimates relative to our critical accounting policies have not differed materially from actual results.

There have been no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates during the nine months September 30, 2014, as compared to the critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in our Prospectus.

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, and are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-Q. We believe that the impact of recently issued accounting pronouncements will not have a material impact on consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows, or do not apply to our operations.

 

Item 3.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Interest Rate Fluctuation Risk

Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. Due to the short-term duration and limited funds available for investment, we would not expect our operating results or cash flows to be affected to any significant degree by the effect of a sudden change in market interest rates on our investment portfolio. A 10% change in interest rates on September 30, 2014 would not have had a material effect on the fair market value of our portfolio.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We contract with CROs and investigational sites and third-party manufacturers in several foreign countries, including several countries in Europe and Russia. Several of these contracts are denominated in Euros, and we are therefore subject to fluctuations in foreign currency rates in connection with these agreements, and recognize foreign exchange gains or losses in our statement of operations. We have not historically hedged our foreign currency exchange rate risk. To date we have not incurred any material effects from foreign currency changes on these contracts.

Further, substantially all of the Mind-NRG operations were conducted in Europe. We have translated their historical financial statements from Euros into U.S. dollars using appropriate exchange rates for purposes of presenting the combined pro forma financial statements. Subsequent to our acquisition of Mind-NRG in February 2014, the U.S. Dollar has become the functional currency of Mind-NRG. We will continue to incur expenses under our development programs primarily in U.S. Dollars and Euros. We may manage our exposure to foreign currency risk with exchange rate contracts based on our forecasted operational needs. A 10% change in the euro-to-dollar exchange rate on September 30, 2014 would not have had a material effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

Inflation Risk

Inflation generally affects us by increasing our cost of labor and clinical trial costs. We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations during the nine months ended September 30, 2014.

 

Item 4.   Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

We maintain “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of September 30, 2014.  Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of September 30, 2014, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective at a reasonable assurance level because of the identification of the material weaknesses discussed below.  

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Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting, other than as set forth below, identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rules 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, our independent registered public accounting firm concluded that there were material weaknesses and significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a significant deficiency, or a combination of significant deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that it is reasonably possible that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weaknesses that we identified related to (1) lack of segregation of duties, (2) lack of personnel competent to perform complex accounting, including stock-based compensation, the convertible promissory notes beneficial conversion features, and income tax disclosures, (3) lack of financial statement disclosure controls, and (4) not performing a risk assessment.

During the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we took steps to remediate the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and have hired additional finance and legal staff to effectively address segregation of duties, develop internal controls over financial reporting and mitigate the control deficiencies identified at December 31, 2013 and 2012. We have also implemented procedures for the effective control and approval of payroll, disbursements, cash management and equity transactions and are performing a formal risk assessment.

Although we have taken measures to remediate the material weaknesses identified by our independent registered public accounting firm, we cannot conclude that we have remediated such material weaknesses. We plan to continue to evaluate our internal controls and make improvements as appropriate.

Notwithstanding our continued material weakness, we have concluded that the financial statements and other financial information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q fairly present in all material respects our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows as of, and for, the periods presented.

Limitations of the Effectiveness of Internal Controls

 

A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the internal control system are met. Because of inherent limitations in any control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues, if any, within a company have been detected. We are continuously seeking to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our operations and of our internal controls.

 

 

 

 

29


PART II

 

Item 1.   Legal Proceedings

We are not currently subject to any material litigation or other legal proceeding.

 

Item 1A.   Risk Factors

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking information based on our current expectations. Because our actual results may differ materially from any forward-looking statements that we make or that are made on our behalf, this section includes a discussion of important factors that could affect our actual future results, including, but not limited to, our capital resources, the progress and timing of our clinical programs, the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, risks associated with regulatory filings, risks associated with determinations made by regulatory agencies, the potential clinical benefits and market potential of our product candidates, commercial market estimates, future development efforts, patent protection, effects of healthcare reform, reliance on third parties, and other risks set forth below.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Requirements

We have incurred significant losses since our inception. We expect to continue to incur losses over the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We are a clinical development-stage biopharmaceutical company. In November 2013, we merged with Sonkei Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Sonkei, and, in February 2014, we acquired Mind-NRG, which were also clinical development-stage biopharmaceutical companies. Investment in biopharmaceutical product development is highly speculative because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate effect or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval or become commercially viable. As an early stage company, we have limited experience and have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome many of the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving fields, particularly the biopharmaceutical area. We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales to date, and we continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations.

We are not profitable and have incurred losses in each period since our inception in 2007. For the year ended December 31, 2013, we reported a net loss of $3.3 million. For the nine months ended September 30, 2014, we reported a net loss of $49.5 million. As of September 30, 2014, we had an accumulated deficit of $67.3 million.

We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we continue our research and development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates. If any of our product candidates fail in clinical trials or do not gain regulatory approval, or if any of our product candidates, if approved, fail to achieve market acceptance, we may never generate revenue or become profitable. Even if we achieve profitability in the future, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenues. Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.

We will require additional capital to finance our operations, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. As a result, we may not complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates or develop new product candidates.

Our operations and the historic operations of Sonkei and Mind-NRG have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. We expect our research and development expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance our product candidates into clinical trials.

As of September 30, 2014, we had cash and cash equivalents of $23.6 million. We believe that the net proceeds from our initial public offering and the concurrent private placements and our existing cash and cash equivalents, will fund our projected operating requirements through 2015. In particular, we expect these funds will allow us to substantially complete our planned Phase II clinical development for one of our two lead product candidates, MIN-101, as well as to complete the planned Phase Ib clinical development of MIN-202 with Janssen and additional pre-clinical development of MIN-301. However, circumstances may cause us to consume capital more rapidly than we currently anticipate. In any event, we will require significant additional capital to fund the development of our other product candidate, MIN-117, and to fund future clinical trials of our other product candidates, and to obtain regulatory approval for, and to commercialize, our product candidates.

30


Our future funding requirements, both short and long-term, will depend on many factors, including:

·

the initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of pre-clinical and clinical studies for our product candidates and future product candidates we may develop;

·

the outcome, timing and cost of seeking and obtaining regulatory approvals from the European Medicines Association, or EMA, United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, including the potential for such authorities to require that we perform more studies than those that we currently expect;

·

the cost to establish, maintain, expand and defend the scope of our intellectual property portfolio, including the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make, or that we may receive, in connection with licensing, preparing, filing, prosecution, defense and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights;

·

the effect of competing technological and market developments;

·

market acceptance of any approved product candidates;

·

the costs of acquiring, licensing or investing in additional businesses, products, product candidates and technologies; and

·

the cost of establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for our product candidates for which we may receive regulatory approval and that we determine to commercialize ourselves or in collaboration with our partners.

When we need to secure additional financing, such additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from our day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. In addition, we cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we raise additional equity financing, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests, and the per-share value of our common stock could decline. If we engage in debt financing, we may be required to accept terms that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness and force us to maintain specified liquidity or other ratios. Further, the evolving and volatile global economic climate and global financial market conditions could limit our ability to raise funding and otherwise adversely impact our business or those of our collaborators and providers. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. Any of these events could significantly harm our business, financial condition and prospects.

Our recurring losses from operations have raised substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.

Our recurring losses from operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, and as a result, our independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph in its report on our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013 with respect to this uncertainty. Our ability to continue as a going concern could materially limit our ability to raise additional funds through the issuance of new debt or equity securities or otherwise. Future reports on our financial statements may include an explanatory paragraph with respect to our ability to continue as a going concern. We have not generated revenues or been profitable since inception, and it is possible we will never achieve profitability. None of our product candidates can be marketed until governmental approvals have been obtained. Accordingly, there is no current source of revenues, much less profits, to sustain our present activities, and no revenues will likely be available until, and unless, our product candidates are approved by the EMA, FDA or comparable regulatory agencies in other countries and successfully marketed, either by us or a partner, an outcome which may not occur. Based upon our currently expected level of operating expenditures, we expect to be able to fund our operations through 2015. This period could be shortened if there are any significant increases in planned spending on development programs or more rapid progress of development programs than anticipated. There is no assurance that other financing will be available when needed to allow us to continue as a going concern. The perception that we may not be able to continue as a going concern may cause others to choose not to deal with us due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations and may negatively impact the market price of our common stock.

We plan to use potential future operating losses and our federal and state net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards to offset taxable income from revenue generated from operations or corporate collaborations. However, our ability to use existing NOL carryforwards may be limited as a result of issuance of equity securities.

As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately $16.0 million of federal NOL carryforwards. These federal NOL carryforwards will begin to expire at various dates beginning in 2027, if not utilized. We plan to use our operating losses to offset any potential future taxable income generated from operations or collaborations. To the extent we generate taxable income, we plan to use our existing NOL carryforwards and future losses to offset income that would otherwise be taxable. However, under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the amount of benefits from our NOL carryforwards may be impaired or limited if we incur a cumulative ownership change of more than 50%, as interpreted by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, over a three year period. We have not performed a detailed analysis to determine whether an ownership change occurred upon consummation of the merger between us and Sonkei, upon the acquisition of Mind-NRG or our initial public offering or the concurrent private placements. However, as a result of these transactions, it is likely that an ownership change has occurred. Therefore, it is likely that some or all of our existing NOL carryforwards would be limited by

31


the provisions of Section 382 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. Further, state NOL carryforwards may be similarly limited. We had approximately $11.0 million of state net operating carryforwards at December 31, 2013. It is also possible that future changes in ownership, including as a result of subsequent sales of securities by us or our stockholders, could similarly limit our ability to utilize NOL carryforwards. It is possible that all of our existing NOL carryforwards have been or will be disallowed. Any such disallowances may result in greater tax liabilities than we would incur in the absence of such a limitation and any increased liabilities could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

 

Changes in estimates regarding fair value of goodwill and IPR&D may result in an adverse impact on our results of operations.

 

We test goodwill and in-process research and development for impairment annually or more frequently if changes in circumstances or the occurrence of events suggest impairment exists. The test for impairment requires us to make several estimates about fair value, most of which are based on projected future cash flows. Changes in these estimates may result in the recognition of an impairment loss in our results of operations. For intangible assets, an impairment analysis is performed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of any individual asset may not be recoverable. For example, if we or our conterparties fail to perform our respective obligations under an agreement, or if we lack sufficient funding to develop our product candidates, an impairment may result. In addition, any significant change in market conditions, estimates or judgments used to determine expected future cash flows that indicate a reduction in carrying value may give rise to impairment in the period that the change becomes known.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We are heavily dependent on the success of our two lead product candidates and we cannot give any assurance that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval in a timely manner or at all, which is necessary before they can be commercialized.

We have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the licensing and development of our two lead product candidates: (i) MIN-101 for the treatment of schizophrenia and (ii) MIN-117 for the treatment of major depressive disorder, or MDD. We plan to use the substantial majority of our current cash and cash equivalents, including the remaining net proceeds from our initial public offering, to fund a Phase IIb clinical trial of MIN-101 in Europe. In order to develop MIN-117, we will need to obtain additional financing. We may never successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize MIN-101 or MIN-117.

The regulatory approval process is expensive and the time required to obtain approval from the EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions to sell any product is uncertain and may take years.

We currently hold no Investigational New Drug, or IND, approvals in the United States (other than the IND held by Janssen, our co-development partner for MIN-202), and as a result do not intend to initiate human clinical trials of our product candidates in the United States (other than the clinical trial being initiated in the United States by Janssen, our co-development partner for MIN-202) until 2015 or later. Whether regulatory approval will be granted is unpredictable and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. Moreover, the filing of a marketing application, including a New Drug Application, or NDA, requires a payment of a significant user fee upon submission. The filing of marketing applications for our product candidates may be delayed due to our lack of financial resources to pay such user fee.

Initially, we plan to conduct clinical trials in Europe. Applications to commence clinical trials in the European Union are made to member state regulatory authorities. Good Clinical Practice (in the European Union under ICH 1997), or GCP, as incorporated into the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20 and national implementing regulations, set forth the majority of the requirements and procedures for the conduct of trials but national divergences exist especially in relation to insurance and compensation, which will require that we develop a thorough understanding of the specific procedures and requirements for the individual member states in which we chose to conduct the clinical trials. Clinical trials in the European Union also require an ethics committee or institutional review board opinion, and there is often inconsistency as to ethics committee decisions. An ethics committee may ask questions and/or require re-writing or amending a trial protocol, any of which may require that we incur additional expense in order to commence a clinical trial. Even after re-submission to the relevant ethics committee, the application may still ultimately be rejected. After clinical trial authorization, we may be inspected for compliance with GCP by inspectors from the national regulatory authorities. If the inspections provide warnings or require changes, this will cause further delays and cost and we may be restricted from completing the trials.

32


If, following submission, our NDA or marketing authorization application is not accepted for substantive review or approval, the EMA, FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require that we conduct additional clinical or pre-clinical trials, provide additional data, manufacture additional validation batches or develop additional analytical tests methods before they will reconsider our application. If the EMA, FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities requires additional studies or data, we would incur increased costs and delays in the marketing approval process, which may require us to expend more resources than we have available. In addition, the EMA, FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may not consider sufficient any additional required trials, data or information that we perform or provide, or we may decide, or be required, to abandon the program.

Moreover, policies, regulations, or the type and amount of pre-clinical and clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. It is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any of our future product candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval, even if we expend substantial time and resources seeking such approval.

Our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

·

The EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials. We have not yet consulted with the EMA or the FDA on the design and conduct of the clinical trials that have already been conducted or that we intend to conduct. Thus, the EMA, FDA and other comparable foreign authorities may not agree with the design or implementation of these trials. We intend to seek guidance from the EMA in relation to the European Union clinical trial program and the FDA on the design and conduct of clinical trials of our compounds when we initiate a clinical program in the United States in the future.

·

We may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication.

·

The results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities for approval.

·

We may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh any safety risks.

·

The EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from pre-clinical studies or clinical trials.

·

The data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere.

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The EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies.

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The approval policies or regulations of the EMA, FDA or other regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

Even if we obtain approval for a particular product, regulatory authorities may approve that product for fewer or more limited indications, including more limited patient populations, than we request, may require that contraindications, warnings, or precautions be included in the product labeling, including a black box warning, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials or other post-market requirements, including risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, or REMS, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product. Any of the foregoing could materially harm the commercial prospects for our product candidates.

Results of earlier clinical trials may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials.

The clinical trials related to our product candidates have been limited to six Phase I trials completed between 2002 and 2004 for MIN-101, a Phase IIa trial for MIN-101 completed in 2009, two Phase I trials for MIN-117 completed between 2005 and 2009, and a Phase I trial for MIN-202 completed in 2011. Each of our product candidates has also undergone pre-clinical studies. The results of pre-clinical studies and early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Interpretation of results from early, usually smaller, studies that suggest positive trends in some subjects, require caution. Results from later stages of clinical trials enrolling more subjects may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy results or otherwise fail to be consistent with the results of earlier trials of the same product candidate. This may occur for a variety of reasons, including differences in trial design, trial endpoints (or lack of trial endpoints in exploratory studies), subject population, number of subjects, subject selection criteria, trial duration, drug dosage and formulation or due to the lack of statistical power in the earlier studies. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or unacceptable safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials.

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The results of clinical trials conducted at sites outside the United States may not be accepted by the FDA and the results of clinical trials conducted at sites in the United States may not be accepted by international regulatory authorities.

We plan to conduct our clinical trials outside the United States. Although the FDA may accept data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States, acceptance of this data would be subject to certain conditions imposed by the FDA. For example, the clinical trial must be well-designed and conducted and performed by qualified investigators in accordance with ethical safeguards such as institutional review board, or IRB, or ethics committee approval and informed consent. The study population must also adequately represent the applicable United States population, and the data must be applicable to the American population and medical practice in ways that the FDA deems clinically meaningful. In addition, while clinical trials conducted outside of the United States are subject to the applicable local laws, FDA acceptance of the data from such trials will be dependent upon its determination that the trials were conducted consistent with all applicable United States laws and regulations. There can be no assurance the FDA will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States as adequate support of a marketing application, and it is not unusual for the FDA to require some Phase III clinical trial data to be generated in the United States. If the FDA does not accept the data from our international clinical trials, it would likely result in the need for additional trials in the United States, which would be costly and time-consuming and could delay or permanently halt the development of one or more of our product candidates.

If we experience delays in clinical testing, we will be delayed in commercializing our product candidates, our costs may increase and our business may be harmed.

We do not know whether our clinical trials will be completed on schedule, or at all. Our product development costs will increase if we experience delays in clinical testing. Significant clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which would impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

The commencement and completion of clinical development can be delayed or halted for a number of reasons, including:

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difficulties obtaining regulatory approval to commence a clinical trial or complying with conditions imposed by a regulatory authority regarding the scope or term of a clinical trial;

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delays in reaching or failure to reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective clinical research organizations, or CROs, and trial sites, which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

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deviations from the trial protocol by clinical trial sites and investigators, or failing to conduct the trial in accordance with regulatory requirements;

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failure of our third parties, such as CROs, to satisfy their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines;

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insufficient or inadequate supply or quantity of product material for use in trials due to delays in the importation and manufacture of clinical supply, including delays in the testing, validation, and delivery of the clinical supply of the investigational drug to the clinical trial sites;

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delays in identification and auditing of central or other laboratories and the transfer and validation of assays or tests to be used;

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delays in having subjects complete participation in a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

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difficulties obtaining IRB or ethics committee approval to conduct a trial at a prospective site, or complying with conditions imposed by IRBs or ethics committees;

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challenges recruiting and enrolling subjects to participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including competition from other programs for the treatment of similar conditions;

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severe or unexpected drug-related adverse events experienced by subjects in a clinical trial;

·

difficulty retaining subjects who have initiated a clinical trial but may be prone to withdraw due to side effects from the therapy, lack of efficacy or personal issues, which are common among schizophrenia and MDD subjects who we require for our clinical trials of our two lead product candidates, MIN-101 and MIN-117;

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delays in adding new investigators and clinical sites;

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withdrawal of clinical trial sites from clinical trials;

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lack of adequate funding; and

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clinical holds or termination imposed by the European Union national regulatory authorities, the FDA or IRBs or ethics committees.

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Clinical trials may also be delayed as a result of ambiguous or negative interim results. In addition, clinical trials may be suspended or terminated by us, an IRB or ethics committee overseeing the clinical trial at a trial site (with respect to that site), the European Union national regulatory authorities or the FDA due to a number of factors, including:

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failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, the trial protocols and applicable laws;

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observations during inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial sites by the EMA, FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities that ultimately result in the imposition of a clinical hold;

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unforeseen safety issues; or

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lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Failure to conduct a clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements, the trial protocols and applicable laws may also result in the inability to use the data from such trial to support product approval. Additionally, changes in regulatory requirements and guidance may occur, and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to reflect these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to the EMA, FDA, IRBs or ethics committees for reexamination, which may impact the costs, timing and successful completion of a clinical trial. Many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of a clinical trial may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of the associated product candidate. If we experience delays in completion of, or if we terminate any of our clinical trials, our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates may be materially harmed, and our commercial prospects and ability to generate product revenues will be diminished.

We have no experience in advancing product candidates beyond Phase IIa, which makes it difficult to assess our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates.

We commenced operations in 2007 under the name Cyrenaic Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Cyrenaic, and our operations to date (and those of Sonkei and Mind-NRG, which we have acquired) have been limited to raising capital, identifying potential drug candidates, and undertaking pre-clinical and Phase I and IIa clinical trials. Neither we nor Sonkei have conducted any clinical trials of our two lead product candidates, MIN-101 and MIN-117, since 2009, resulting in our lead product candidates losing patent life without clinical advancement toward potential commercialization.

We have no experience in progressing clinical trials past Phase IIa, obtaining regulatory approvals or commercializing product candidates. We recently merged with Sonkei and acquired Mind-NRG and have limited operating history since the respective merger and acquisition. We may encounter unforeseen expense, difficulties, complications, delays and other known or unknown factors in pursuing our business objectives. We expect our financial condition and operating results to continue to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, you should not rely upon the results of any quarterly or annual periods as indications of future operating performance.

If we are unable to enroll subjects in clinical trials, we will be unable to complete these trials on a timely basis or at all.

The timely completion of clinical trials largely depends on subject enrollment. Many factors affect subject enrollment, including:

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the size and nature of the subject population;

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the number and location of clinical sites we enroll;

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competition with other companies for clinical sites or subjects;

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the eligibility and exclusion criteria for the trial;

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the design of the clinical trial;

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inability to obtain and maintain subject consents;

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risk that enrolled subjects will drop out before completion; and

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clinicians’ and subjects’ perceptions as to the potential advantages or disadvantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating.

We rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials in Europe and, we expect, eventually in the United States and, while we have agreements governing their committed activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance. We may also experience difficulties enrolling subjects for our clinical trials relating to MIN-101 and MIN-117 due to the mental health of the subjects that we will need to enroll. For instance, according to Datamonitor, roughly one-third of purported schizophrenia patients may not receive an accurate diagnosis, with negative symptoms more difficult to recognize. The patient discontinuation rate for current schizophrenia drugs is also high. For instance, 66 out of 99 subjects ceased to participate in the

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Phase IIa clinical trial of MIN-101. As a result, the process of finding, diagnosing and retaining subjects throughout a clinical trial targeting the negative symptoms of schizophrenia or MDD may prove difficult and costly.

Our clinical trials may fail to demonstrate adequately the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, which could prevent or delay regulatory approval and commercialization, and also increase costs.

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through lengthy, complex and expensive pre-clinical testing and clinical trials that our product candidates are both safe and effective for use in each target indication, and failures can occur at any stage of testing. Clinical trials often fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy of the product candidate studied for the target indication. For instance, our clinical studies of MIN-101 and MIN-117 did not show statistically significant differences favorable to the investigational products between the treatment and comparator groups on all the studies’ primary, secondary and/or exploratory endpoints. While these studies were not powered for statistical significance, regulatory authorities may find that the studies do not support, in combination with other studies, approval of our product candidates for the target indication. In addition, our product candidates may be associated with undesirable side effects or have characteristics that are unexpected, which may result in abandoning their development or regulatory authorities restricting or denying marketing approval. For instance, prior clinical studies indicated that MIN-101 and MIN-117 may cause adverse events, including, but not limited to, dizziness, vital sign changes, central nervous system events, cardiac events, including prolongation of the QT/QTc interval, and gastrointestinal events. Most product candidates that commence clinical trials are never approved by the applicable regulatory authorities.

In the case of our lead product candidates, MIN-101 and MIN-117, we are seeking to develop treatments for schizophrenia and MDD, which adds a layer of complexity to our clinical trials and may delay regulatory approval. We do not fully understand the cause and pathophysiology of schizophrenia and MDD, and our results will rely on subjective subject feedback, which is inherently difficult to evaluate, can be influenced by factors outside of our control and can vary widely from day to day for a particular subject, and from subject to subject and site to site within a clinical study. The placebo effect may also have a more significant impact on our clinical trials.

If our product candidates are not shown to be both safe and effective in clinical trials, we will not be able to obtain regulatory approval or commercialize our product candidates.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and management resources, we focus on a limited number of research programs and product candidates. For instance, we are prioritizing the clinical trials and development of one of our two lead product candidates, MIN-101. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates, including MIN-117, MIN-202 and MIN-301, or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial drugs or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights.

Even if we complete the necessary clinical trials, we cannot predict when or if we will obtain marketing approval to commercialize a product candidate or the approval may be for a more narrow indication than we expect.

We cannot commercialize a product candidate until the appropriate regulatory authorities have reviewed and approved the product candidate. Even if our product candidates demonstrate safety and efficacy in clinical trials, the regulatory agencies may not complete their review processes in a timely manner, or we may not be able to obtain marketing approval from the relevant regulatory agencies. Additional delays may result if the EMA, FDA, an FDA Advisory Committee, or other regulatory authority recommends non-approval or restrictions on approval. In addition, we may experience delays or rejections based upon additional government regulation from future legislation or administrative action, or changes in regulatory agency policy during the period of product development, clinical trials and the review process.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may still face future development and regulatory difficulties, including ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review. Additionally, our product candidates, if approved, could be subject to labeling and other restrictions and market withdrawal and we may be subject to administrative sanctions or penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, product candidates may be approved for fewer or more limited indications, including more limited subject populations, than we request, and regulatory authorities may require that contraindications, warnings, or precautions be included in the product labeling, including a black box warning, may grant approval contingent on the

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performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials or other post-market requirements, such as REMS, may require post-marketing surveillance, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate. For instance, in 2007, the FDA requested that makers of all antidepressant medications update existing black box warnings about increased risk of suicidal thought and behavior in young adults, ages 18 to 24, during initial treatment. If approved for marketing, our drugs may be required to carry warnings similar to this and other class-wide warnings.

Any approved products would further be subject to ongoing requirements imposed by the EMA, FDA, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities governing the manufacture, quality control, further development, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, safety surveillance, import, export, advertising, promotion, marketing, recordkeeping and reporting of safety and other post-market information. If there are any modifications to the drug, including changes in indications, labeling, manufacturing processes or facilities, or if new safety issues arise, a new or supplemental NDA, post-implementation notification or other reporting may be required or requested, which may require additional data or additional pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.

The EMA, FDA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities will continue to closely monitor the safety profile of any product even after approval. If the EMA, FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities become aware of new adverse safety information after approval of any of our product candidates, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

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we may suspend marketing of, or withdraw or recall, such product;

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regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such product;

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regulatory authorities may require additional warnings or otherwise restrict the product’s indicated use, label, or marketing;

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the EMA, FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory bodies may issue safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings about such product;

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the FDA may require the establishment or modification of a REMS or the EMA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority may require the establishment or modification of a similar strategy that may, for instance, require us to issue a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to subjects or restrict distribution of our products and impose burdensome implementation requirements on us;

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regulatory authorities may require that we conduct post-marketing studies or surveillance;

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we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to subjects or patients; and

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our reputation may suffer.

In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities, including contracted facilities, are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by national regulatory authorities in the European Union, the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, regulations and standards. The European Union cGMP guidelines are as set forth in Commission Directive 2003/94/EC of October 8, 2003. If we or a regulatory agency or authority discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, the product’s stability (changes in levels of impurities or dissolution profile) or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, we may be subject to reporting obligations, additional testing and additional sampling, and a regulatory agency or authority may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility, our suppliers, or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing. If we, our product candidates, the manufacturing facilities for our product candidates, our CROs, or other persons or entities working on our behalf fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements either before or after marketing approval, a regulatory agency may, depending on the stage of product development and approval:

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issue adverse inspectional findings;

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issue Warning Letters, Cyber Letters or Untitled Letters;

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mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;

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amend and update labels or package inserts;

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require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance;

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seek an injunction or impose civil, criminal and/or administrative penalties, damages or monetary fines or imprisonment;

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suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;

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suspend or terminate any ongoing clinical studies;

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·

debar us;

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refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to applications filed by us;

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refuse to allow us to enter into government contracts;

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suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including restrictions on marketing or manufacturing of the product, or the imposition of costly new manufacturing requirements or use of alternative suppliers; or

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seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products, or require us to initiate a product recall.

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our products and generate revenue.

Our product candidates and the activities associated with their development and commercialization in the United States, including, but not limited to, their advertising and promotion, will further be heavily scrutinized by the FDA, the United States Department of Justice, the United States Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Inspector General, state attorneys general, members of Congress and the public. Violations of applicable law, including advertising, marketing and promotion of our products for unapproved (or off-label) uses, are subject to enforcement letters, inquiries and investigations, and civil, criminal and/or administrative sanctions by regulatory agencies. Additionally, comparable foreign regulatory authorities will heavily scrutinize advertising and promotion of any product candidate that obtains approval outside of the United States. In this regard, advertising and promotion of medicines in the European Union is governed by Directive 2001/83 EC, as amended, and any such activities which we may undertake in the European Union will have to be in strict compliance with the same. Any advertising of a prescription medicinal product to the public and any promotion of a medicinal product that does not have marketing authorization or is not promoted in accordance with that marketing authorization is prohibited. Advertisements and promotions of medicinal products are monitored nationally in the European Union, and each country will have its own additional advertising laws and industry governing bodies, whose obligations may go further than those set out in Directive 2001/83. For instance, in the United Kingdom the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (the lead United Kingdom trade association) is considerably stricter than applicable legislative requirements. Any violations and sanctions will similarly be decided and administered by the relevant country’s national authority.

 

In the United States, engaging in the impermissible promotion of products for off-label uses can also subject the entity engaging in such conduct to false claims litigation under federal and state statutes, which can lead to civil, criminal and/or administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, curtailment or restructuring of its operations and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which it promotes or distributes drug products. Accordingly, we are subject to the federal civil False Claims Act, which prohibits persons and entities from knowingly filing, or causing to be filed, a false claim, or the knowing use of false statements, to obtain payment from the federal government. Certain suits filed under the civil False Claims Act, known as “qui tam” actions, can be brought by any individual on behalf of the government and such individuals, commonly known as “whistleblowers,” may share in certain amounts paid by the entity to the government in fines or settlement. When an entity is determined to have violated the civil False Claims Act, it may be required to pay up to three times the actual damages sustained by the government, plus civil penalties for each separate false claim. Various states have also enacted laws modeled after the federal civil False Claims Act.  We are also subject to the federal criminal False Claims Act, which imposes criminal fines or imprisonment against individuals or entities who make or present a claim to the government knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent. Additionally, we may be subject to civil monetary penalties that may be imposed against any person or entity that, among other things, is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal health program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.

 

False Claims Act lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies have increased significantly in volume and breadth, leading to substantial civil and criminal settlements regarding certain sales practices, including promoting off-label drug uses. This growth in litigation has increased the risk that a pharmaceutical company will have to defend a false claims action, pay settlement fines or restitution, agree to comply with burdensome reporting and compliance obligations, and/or be excluded from Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs. If we do not lawfully promote our products, we may become subject to such litigation, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

While no definition of “off-label use” exists at the European Union level, promotion of a medicinal product for a purpose that has not been approved is strictly prohibited. Such promotion also gives rise to criminal prosecution in the European Union, and national healthcare supervisory authorities may impose administrative fines. Engaging in such promotions in the European Union could also lead to product liability claims, in accordance with EU product liability regime under Directive 85/374.

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The EMA’s, FDA’s, and other applicable government agencies’ policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval and marketing authorization, and the sale and promotion of our product candidates. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, and be subject to civil, criminal and administrative enforcement, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

The regulatory pathway for our product candidate, MIN-301, has not yet been determined. Depending on the pathway, we may be subject to different regulatory requirements.

MIN-301 is a protein, and, as a protein, may be subject to the Public Health Service Act, or PHSA, and the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. We have yet to meet with the FDA regarding the approval pathway for this product candidate. Based on the definition of a biologic in the PHSA, we believe that MIN-301 meets the definition of a biologic and, thus, we will need to submit a Biologics License Application, or BLA, for product approval. Moreover, based on an FDA intercenter agreement, we believe that MIN-301 will be regulated by the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. However, we intend to discuss jurisdiction with the FDA to determine the appropriate regulatory pathway and corresponding requirements. Depending on the pathway, we may be subject to different regulatory requirements, including different regulatory and testing requirements, shorter or longer periods of market exclusivity, and different approval processes for generic drug and biosimilar competitors.

If the market opportunities for any product that we or our collaborators develop are smaller than we believe, our revenue may be adversely affected and our business may suffer.

Our product candidates are intended for the treatment of schizophrenia, MDD, insomnia and Parkinson’s disease. Our projections of both the number of people who have these disorders or disease, as well as the subset of people who have the potential to benefit from treatment with our product candidates and who will pursue such treatment, are based on our beliefs and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. For instance, with respect to schizophrenia and MDD, our estimates are based on the number of patients that suffer from schizophrenia and MDD, but these disorders are difficult to accurately diagnose and high rates of patients may not seek or continue treatment. Our estimates and beliefs are also based on the potential market of other drugs in development for schizophrenia and MDD, which may prove to be inaccurate and our advantages over such drugs may not be, or may not be perceived to be, as significant as we believe they are. If our estimates prove to be inaccurate, even if our products are approved, we may not be able to successfully commercialize them. In addition, the cause and pathophysiology of schizophrenia and MDD are not fully understood, and additional scientific understanding and future drug or non-drug therapies may make our product candidates obsolete.

Changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.

As product candidates are developed through pre-clinical to late stage clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered in an effort to optimize processes and results. Such changes carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives. Any of these changes could cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of planned clinical trials or future clinical trials to be conducted with the altered materials. Such changes may also require additional testing, EMA or FDA notification or EMA or FDA approval. This could delay completion of clinical trials, require the conduct of bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidates and/or jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenue.

Our failure to obtain regulatory approval in additional international jurisdictions would prevent us from marketing our product candidates outside the European Union and the United States.

We plan to seek regulatory approval to commercialize our product candidates in the European Union and, other than MIN-202, in the United States. We also expect to seek regulatory approval in additional foreign countries. To market and sell our products in other jurisdictions, we must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain EMA or FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the European Union and United States generally includes risks substantially similar to those associated with obtaining EMA or FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, we must secure product price and reimbursement approvals before regulatory authorities will approve the product for sale in that country or within a short time after receiving such marketing approval. Obtaining foreign regulatory approvals and compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. Further, clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries and regulatory approval in one country does not ensure approval in any other country, while a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory approval process in others. Also, regulatory approval for any of our product candidates may be withdrawn. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets or do not receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market

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will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our product candidates will be harmed and our business will be adversely affected. We may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all, especially because some foreign jurisdictions require prior approval of a treatment by the domestic regulatory agency. Our failure to obtain approval of any of our product candidates by regulatory authorities in another country may significantly diminish the commercial prospects of that product candidate and our business prospects could decline.

We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than us.

The biopharmaceutical industry is intensely competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. We face competition with respect to our current product candidates and will face competition with respect to any future product candidates from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical and human resources. Smaller and early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

Our competitors may obtain regulatory approval of their products more rapidly than us or may obtain patent protection or other intellectual property rights that limit our ability to develop or commercialize our product candidates. Our competitors may also develop drugs that are more effective, more convenient, more widely used, less costly and/or have a better safety profile than our products, and competitors may also be more successful than us in manufacturing and marketing their products.

Our competitors will also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, management and commercial personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and subject registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

There are numerous currently approved therapies for treating the same diseases or indications for which our product candidates may be useful and many of these currently approved therapies act through mechanisms similar to our product candidates. Many of these approved drugs are well-established therapies or products and are widely accepted by physicians, patients and third-party payors. Some of these drugs are branded and subject to patent protection and regulatory exclusivity, while others are available on a generic basis. Insurers and other third-party payors may encourage the use of generic products or specific branded products. Moreover, it is difficult to predict the effect that introduction of biosimilars into the market will have on sales of the reference biologic product, which will depend on the FDA’s standards for interchangeability, the structure of government and commercial managed care formularies, and state laws on substitution of biosimilars. We expect that if our product candidates are approved, they will be priced at a significant premium over competitive generics and biosimilars. This may make it difficult for us to differentiate our products from currently approved therapies, which may adversely impact our business strategy. In addition, any new product that competes with an approved product must demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability, and safety in order to overcome price competition and to be commercially successful. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, our business will not grow and our financial condition and operations will suffer. Moreover, many companies are developing new therapeutics, and we cannot predict what the standard of care will be as our product candidates progress through clinical development.

Even if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success. If our drug candidates do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant revenue from drug sales and we may not become profitable. Our commercial success also depends on coverage and adequate reimbursement of our products by third-party payors, including government payors, which may be difficult or time-consuming to obtain, may be limited in scope or may not be obtained in all jurisdictions in which we may seek to market our products. The degree of market acceptance of our drug candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

·

the efficacy and perceived and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments, including any similar generics and biosimilars;

·

the timing of market introduction relative to alternative treatment;

·

our ability to offer our drugs for sale at competitive prices relative to alternative treatments;

·

the clinical indications for which the product candidate is approved;

·

the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;

·

the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

·

the strength of our marketing and distribution support;

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·

the availability of third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products or the willingness of patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of coverage by third-party payors;

·

unfavorable publicity relating to the products;